Sunday, July 31, 2011

1861 July 31 Camp at Monterey

Dear Father
All the accounts I have read
in the papers, of our defeat at Rich Mountain and
retreat from that place and from Laurel Hill, are
so utterly untrue. I have determined to informd[sic]
you of what facts I myself saw, and what I have
heard from relyable persons.

From the time of my arrival at Rich Mountain
when Col. Pegram took command of that post,
untill the battle, we were continually expecting an
attack from the enemy on our fortifications, but
untill the day before the battle we heard nothing of
an attempt being intended on our rear, and I
think untill that time, neither Col. Pegram nor
Gen Garnett were aware of there being any way
around our positions, practicable for infantry.
On that day col. Pegram sent to Col. Scot, who had
just reached Beverly to come to his assistance, and
dispatched a messenger to Gen Garnett for an order

[page 2]
to Col Scot - to the same effect. On the next day, the
12th of July, about dinner time, we were summoned to the
trenches and four companies of our regiment, marched
with Col. Pegram to attack the enemy, posted them on
the top of the mountain in our rear, under the command
of Gen. Rosencrantz, I have since heard he had four
regiments with him. Not long after the Col. had left
us, three pieces of artilery followed him, from that
time for about three hours we heard continued firing
and Capt. Coleman's company was called to Col. Pegrams
assistance, Soon after the horses of one piece took fright
and ran off, with the gun. We were then called to march
up the mountain, the firing having in some means
seased, After having marched about a mile through the
woods, Our three companies under Major Tyler, met
two other companies of our regiment, seemingly in the
greatest confusion and without any one in command
of them. I saw nothing of Major Tyler, and supposing that
the enemy were just in front, I called out to
those companies to advance, but they not moving
and seeming to be much frightened, I told them
to clear the way and allow us to pass on, this they did,
admidst much confusion, we marched on, they following
some distance farther, A Capt Anderson of artilery here
attempted to form the battallion in lines, all the time

[page 3]
talking about courage libert[y?] and death in the most
confused manner untill at last Tom called out to
him to cease making stump speeches and give us some
orders, During all this time I saw or heard nothing of
Major Tyler, except once, when I asked him to show me
where to place my company, and I would march to
that point at once. to my disgust he was so confused
he could not give an order, I then marched my
company toward what seemed to be the line, and
formed and dressed it on the line, they were in
perfect order and obeyed promptly, the other companies
then came on the same line, and immediately after
Col. Pegram came up, He command[ed] the officers of the
companies to the front, and told us to make an
effort to hold our position, We called on him to remain
with us, at first he refused saying he must stay with
the other companies who were about to engage the enemy
again, but after a moment he said he would stay with
us, and asked the officers if they would go with
him to attack the enemy on the top of the mountain
with the bayonet, The officers were very willing, he
then asked the men if the would follow him and
theri officers, they answered him with shouts, and
immediately we commence our march to the top
of the mountain. It was a serious time that march,

[page 4]
We knew the enemy outnumbered us, five to one or
more, and as we were on the way, Tom said to me,
This is a desperate business, we need not expect to come
out of it alive, but he was very resolute, I answered him
that there was nothing impossible to resolute men, he
turned away to his post in the rear of the company, in
silence, and we marched on. The men were becoming more
and more frightened and disordered, and once, at some
noise a company behind me broke and fled back, An
orderly sergeant attempting to stop them was shot by one
of the men and mortally wounded, They were at
last brought back and we reached the top of the
mountain, where we could see the enemy not more than
half a mile off, encamped on the road, with their
horses picketed in great numbers, A little further on
we halted to assemble, for the attack, But Col. Pegram
found the men so frightened, he determined to give
it up, He then ordered Major Tyler to save the comm-
and by retreat, just before he gave the order I was sitting
by him on the grass, and I asked him if it would not
disgrace us to leave the rest of the regiment, but he said
the men would not fight, and that he would return
to try to retreat with the rest of the command.
We then commenced our retreat with major Tyler. It
soon became dark and began to rain, a company
just ahead of the Brunswic[k] Blues, who were ahead of me
for I had taken the rear with my company, no other captain
having command enough of his company to keep them
back, broke and thus my company and the B. Blues
were seperated and lost in the mountains. It was literally
so dark that you could not see your hand a foot from your face.
After marching some distance, I ordered a halt, and we
sat down on the wet ground, without blankets, and there
remained all night. It cleared off next morning and we
continued our march in retreat. In my next letter I will
give you some account of our retreat, and what I have heard
of Gen .Garnetts retreat also. Your Affectionate Son Wm B. Bruce.

William B. Bruce was Captain of Co. K, 20th Virginia Infantry. He refers to Generals William S. Rosecrans [not Rosencrantz], Robert S. Garnett, and Colonel William C. Scott, and Lt. Colonels John Pegram and Nathaniel Tyler. After this disasterous battle of Rich Mountain in which two of the companies were captured, the remaining five in the 20th were disbanded. In September two of the companies, including Bruces, were assigned to the 59th Virginia. Garnett, 1819-1861, was killed two days after the battle in a rear guard action covering the retreat.

MSS 2692

1861 July 31 Fairfax Station [Virginia]

My darling Jennie

Yesterday we detailed from our Brigade
40 men to repair the bridges between this
station & the Junction and I hope it will
not be many days before the trains will
be running to this point--when this occurs
I am going to ask you to take both children
& pay me a visit of 3 or 4 days & sleep in
the tent with me-Tom can sleep up stairs.
I think you can do so without inconvenience
if you will bring something along to eat and
2 blankets 2 sheets and 3 or 4 plates with
you & a small chicken [?] would be a convenience.
This will be my only chance to see you
soon for Genl Elzey is immovable & stubborn

[page 2]
I have not time to write you a letter and
indeed have nothing to say we are lying
still doing nothing but the regular routines of
camp duty--to me a very tiresome business--
It is true that I have lost the negro he was
stolen from the Camp on Sunday night after
the fight & I have not heard from him since
I am sorry for it but cant help it now--I
can charge it to nothing but the negligence of our
sentinels--my health is a little better & I hope
to be well in a few days. I have recd but
two or three letters from you in the last ten
days. write to me a little oftener if you please
or probably you do write & I dont receive
them--I feel very sorry for you & do hope
this war will soon end & that I may be
spared to have many happy days with you.

E.T.H. Warren

Fourth Regiment Virginia Volunteers and later Colonel of the 10th Virginia Infantry.
MSS 7786-g

Saturday, July 30, 2011

1861 July 30th, Camp Fairfax [Virginia]

Dear Joe,
I would have answered yr letter long
ago but I’ve been expecting you over here every day for about two weeks,
and I did not hear that you were not coming until Marcelus Beadles
came over. I w’d have been very glad to have seen you over here but
reckon it is best that you did not come as you’ve tried this sort of
life once & saw that you c’d not stand it. Well Joe, I’ve gotten on
this side of the mountains once more & don’t care if I ever never see the
side again, for I’ve had enough of Harper’s Ferry, Winchester, Romney
& those other places on the other side of the Blue ridge to last me some time.
I was left behind at Winchester sick with the baggage when all
of them left & I did n’t get with them again for nearly a week,
I never had such a lonesome time in my life, I actually had a
^‘slight’ attack of the Blues on the strength of it. When I got to Strasburg I
heard of the fight at Manassa[s] & heard that our Regiment was in
it & were a great many were killed, of course that made me
feel very badly. I suppose you’ve heard all of the particulars of the
victory at Manassa? That was certainly a great victory. The Yankees were
very certain of going to Richmond, they even had women & children
a great many children’s clothes were found. The prettiest part of it was
their having handcuffs & ropes along, thirty thousand handcuffs & any
quantity of rope was taken, they intended carrying all of us that were
not killed to Richmond handcuffed & tied. Our camp now was
occupied by the Yankees, they left a great many things here, left

[page 2]
a sick Yankee b’hind. Nearly every one of our boys made themselves
sick when they first got here eating Yankee crackers, beef tongue & beans,
we are still feasting on their crackers, a wagon load of crackers
were brought in yesterday from Manassa. You never saw the like
of wagons with U. S. on them in y’r life, we don’t use anyother
sort now hardly. I did not go on the battle field at all but saw
a great many of the prisoners & wounded, heard some of the wound=
ed talking, they said they didn’t expect to be treated so well , that the
we treated them better than their own men did…. I don’t know
how long we will remain here but w’d n’t be surprised if we were
here sometime yet. This is a very good place for a camp, we have plenty
good water convenient, the only objection is it’s being a righty dirty place,
we had a general cleaning up yesterday which improved the looks of
things very much…. all of us are get[t]ing very lazy, we don’t have any
thing to do now but to sleep & eat, we have dress parade in the evening.
Yesterday was my washing day, I had a pile of clothes to wash
as I had n’t done any washing for about two weeks before.

A new arrangement has been made about the cooking now, each negro
has a mess to cook for & the rest cook for themselves. Lieutenant Winston
hires Harry & Bro. Jno, Pen, Jim Winston, Henry Chiles, Payne, Kit &
myself are in his mess & we live like Lords, don’t have any trouble
about eating now at all. We had for dinner yesterday, ham & eggs,
onions & cucumbers, pickle, for desert hot corn bread, buttermilk, molas=
ses, butter & cake, that is good enough for anybody is n’t it Joe?
Market carts come in camp every day, you ought to see the men
flock around them. I went out blac after black berries the other
day, fou[n]d a great many….Joe, you are as well fixed now
as you want to be, I know you had rather be here with us but as

[page 3]
you can’t be here, you are doing first rate. You & Lit have the whole
field to your selves now, but I don’t think either of you would take
advantage of the boys in their absence. Do you & Lit ever quarrel
about whose time it is to go down to spend the night at Mr. Wilkin’s?
Ira told me that you took it by turns to stay all night & I w’d not
be surprised if both of you went sometimes & left the store to take
care of itself, I don’t blame you at all for wanting to go every
night Joe, for it is certainly a very nice place to visit, my love
to the whole family…. [words lined out] I never was more surprised in
my life as I was to see Pa the other days & never hated parting
with any body so bad, I could not help shed[d]ing a few tears after
he I left him. I heard to day that the cars w’d commence running
to this place next Monday & if we are here then you must certain=
ly come to see us, we are right at the station & it w’d be a very expense
& trouble to come to see us, all of us would be very glad to see you.
All of the boys that know I am writing to you send their best
love to you. I expect Albin over here soon, tell him if he don’t
hurry up the malitia will get him yet, I want to see him over
here very bad. Your must write me a long letter very soon &
tell Lit to write. My best love to all at home & all of my
friends. All of us are well. Y’r devoted friend

P. Edloe Jones
Manassas Junction
Louisa Blues

Cap. Wm. Joseph Brook s
Louisa CH

My love to Lin Kent & tell him
I will answer his letter soon.


“Special Order” No. 1.
No one to see this but home folks

[page 4]
P. S. I intended writing more, but I have to go on
picket now directly, our whole Co is on picket tonight
& tomorrow, we will have a pleasant time of it. Ed
 MSS 13407

1861 July 30 Camp Pettis Fairfax County, Va.

My dear wife,

Your very welcome letter of the 21st came duly to hand
little did you think that at the very time you were writing it
the bullets were whistling about our ears as thick as hail.
it was certainly one of the most dreadful days I ever spent.
I did not at the time realize it, until it was all over and had
time for reflection, but I was never any more excited during the
fight than if I had been mending the old mill, not even so much
for you know I always got mad when I had that to do.
I stood it far beyond my own expectations, had I been in the ranks
I know I should have been excited, but you know I had the charge
of nearly 100 men's lives, in my head, which by any wrong direction
of mine might have been all sacrificed and heaven seemed to
smile on our humble endeavours, I only had one man killed
and 4 slightly wounded. the wounded are all again at their duty-
in my company all of them refusing to be reported wounded. we was
in the fight about eight hours, during six hours of the time my company
alone, nearly a mile and a half from our Regiment--kept in check
seven thousand Yankees. they fixed us with their cannons
most of the time but did us very little harm as I had all of my
men posted in a position where their shot and shell could not
effect us much, nearly all of it passing over our heads some of their
shells burst among us without doing us any injury only slightly

[page 2]
wounding some of our men, which did not amount to much
as none of them were disabled. John Simpson poor fellow was
afterwards shot while gallantly charging with the company one
of the enemys Batteries, we charged right up and planted the
flag on the top of their guns driving their gunners from them
and having previously shot all the horses that hauled them, they
never could be moved from the place again till the fight was closed
which was shortly afterwards, it was in this charge that poor James
was taken prisoner, the last I saw of him was at this point,
and the enemy having hoisted the Confederate Colors I we
were ordered to cease firing, as we all thought that they were our friends
we were fighting. we retired about fifty or sixty paces when they
again opened a tremendous fire on us, but fresh troops coming
to our assistance, they were again driven back and completely
routed. I think it probably that when they hoisted the
confederate flag, that Jim took them for our friends and got
among them and was carried off him and Rob Lewis are the
only two missing from the Palmetto Riffles and some of our men
have seen a Washington paper which says that among the Prisoners
taken from the Rebels as they style us, are two of the Palmetto
Riflemen from South Carolina, so that they are Prisoners beyond
all doubt, you need not be the least alarmed, about his safety
as we have to[o] many of their prisoners in our hands for them to
perpetuate any outrage on ours.

We have advanced 5 miles from Stone Bridge in the direction
of Alexandria and joined General Jones Brigade of South
Carolinians consisting of the 4th, 5th, 6th, and 9th Regiments
I think an advance on Washington highly probable but dont know for certain.

[page 3]
Your talk of coming out here to see me, nothing in the
world would give me more pleasure than to see you and
little Maggie, but Dear Creek you must not come, this is no
place for women and children, true they are much needed
in our Hospitals to wait on the sick and wounded, but the
Ladies of this country are very kind to them and do all in their
power to make them comfortable, and you know it would be
impossible for you to travel with me, as we do it all on foot and
often sleep out all night with nothing but the blue sky for a covering
but should it be my fate to get wounded on the field I will
Telegraph to Tom at Columbia for you to come and nurse me
should I require it, for I know I should soon recover with you beside
me, but until that time you had better stay at home and
take care of Dear Little Maggie I could not be happy if you and
her were separated. Should we be quartered near any town for any
length of time, I will let you know and shall be very happy to see you
here and you can bring Maggie with you but we are to[o] far away
at present from any point where you could come to by Rail and
it is impossible for you to get a private conveyance; I have just read
a letter from Jane to Billie, I am afraid Mr. Maxwell &c will make
me vain if they carry many more such reports home about me, you
need not be afraid of my rushing into a needless danger, what I have done
I only consider my duty, and shall still endeavour to do it, to the best
of my abilities, and I am ably supported in this by my company
who are as noble and gallant a set of men as ever entered a field of Battle
But I must close as the drum is beating for parade[?] and I have
to attend. Kiss our little darling for me and tell her papa sent it
Farewell Dear Creek Heaven Bless you.

William [Anderson]

4th Regiment South Carolina Volunteers [Palmetto Sharpshooters]

MSS 10366

Friday, July 29, 2011

1861 July 30 Fairfax Station [Virginia]

[to Jennie Warren]

We are still at t his point and
doing nothing and yet I cant get leave of
absence for 3 days Genl Elzy is an
old brute & curses every man that applies
for leave. I applied this morning again and
was refused and apprehending abuse for ma-
king the application. I took the start [?] of
the old dog and commenced abusing him
I gave him my mind plainly & he was as
mum as you please. Capt McDonald the
Genls Adjutant says he thinks I will
get leave in a day or two but I have
no hope--I would not care so much but

[page 2]
I am sick with my old complaint and
dont believe I will get well here--and if
I dont get better in a day or two I will
leave here if I lose my commission
by it. I am as mad as mad can be
and am getting worse--Elzy is a fool
I can make nothing else of him and
if he abuses me as he has done some others
I will cal him to account for it certain.
I saw John Pennybacker about that report
and he denies most emphatically ever
giving circulation to any Report against
me on the contrary says he heard the re-
port and denied it. Try to keep up
your spirits--and be as cheerful as possible
look on the bright side & hope for the best--
Bob Hardesty has resigned & Sprinkel will do so

[page 3]
or be cashiered for cowardice on the Battle
field last Sunday--he behaved very badly
& ought to be drum[m]ed out of the service
Hendesty from all accounts did not do much
better--Pent Bryan will I suppose be captain
he behaved very gal[l]antly--so did Willie H[?]
I would not publish Elzys Report. I [know?] very
little about the report--no one believes it here
all know that we fought like tigers and
behaved as coolly as veterans and with
1500 men repulsed 7500 of which one
regiment was regulars--but for us the day
was lost & Beauregard & Davis both admit
ed it on the field of battle.

We have no news dont expect to move
forward for some days to come and
dont then know in which direction
we are to go. The Yankeys are still in
Alexandria--The Ellsworth Zouaves with
their col[o]n[el] were nearly all killed or
taken prisoners.

Love to all



Fourth Regiment Virginia Volunteers and later Colonel of the 10th Virginia Infantry.

Capt. McDonald: Craig Woodrow McDonald, prior Company E, 13th Va. Infantry
John Pennybacker: John Dyer Pennybacker, Private, Company G, 10th Va. Infantry
Bob Hardesty: Robert L. Hardesty, 1st Lieutenant, Company G, 10th Va. Infantry
Sprinkel: Charles Alexander Sprinkel, Captain, Company G, 10th Va. Infantry
Pent Bryan: Pendleton S. Bryan, 2nd Lieutenant, Company G, 10th Va. Infantry
Willie H: John William Houck, Lieutenant, Company G, 19th Va. Infantry.

[names identified by John Mann IV]

MSS 7786-g

1861 July 29 View Mont [Albemarle County, Va.]

Gen. John H. Cocke,

Dear Sir,

I enclose, at my
sister's request, a copy of the letters you wished.
Hoping they will be safely received, I remain,
Very respectfully,
Lotte Moon

[enclosure follows]

My sister [i.e. Dr. Orianna Moon], having
entered into a temporary engagement with the
medical faculty at the University, has had a
ward assigned to her, and is now there in the discharge
of duties. The urgent demand for the service of
all who had the will and the nerve to witness
and relieve the suffering, rendered it impossible
for her to remain idle. Yeh I am confident,
from having so often heard her express the desire,
that she earnestly wishes to be nearer the scene
of action, and that she will shrink from neither
difficulty nor danger in the discharge of duty.

[page 2]
If any arrangement could be made to that effect I
am sure that she would be much gratified. The
arrangement she has entered into with the surgeons at
the University is only temporary, as she had determined
to make no permanent engagement until she had
heard further from you.

I regret extremely that I can find no copy of
the letters you wished. After looking over her
writing desk, I have reluctantly concluded
that she has either taken them with her,
or destroyed them. My mother will send a
messenger to town with your letter, and I
presume you will receive an answer in a few

Very respectfully,
Lotte Moon.

Dr. Orianna Russell (Moon) Andrews (1834-1883), daughter of a wealthy merchant of Scottsville, Va., was a graduate of the Female Medical College of Pennsylvania. After obtaining her degree she travelled to the Holy Land to assist her missionary uncle. There she was known as El Hakim (the doctor) by the Bedouins among whom she encouraged basic sanitary measures to reduce the prevalence of eye disease among the children. She returned to the United States shortly before the war. After the battle of Manassas/Bull Run Dr. Moon began working in the general hospital in Charlottesville. Soon after she married one of the Assistant Surgeons, John Summerfield Andrews, whose dying brother she had attended.

Her sister Lottie Moon (1840-1912), was equally well educated, a master of several languages and one of the first Southern women to obtain an M.A. degree. She assisted her widowed mother in running their Scottsville, Virginia, plantation, then taught for a few years before receiving a call to become a missionary. In 1873 she was appointed by the Foreign Mission Board of the Southern Baptist Church to China, where she lived and worked for the remainder of her life.

MSS 640

1861 July 29 Camp Pickens, Manassas Junction

My dear little Nannie:

I send by Mr Progue

a Yankee Knapsack, with some Brass

Belt Plates & a small Book, from the Bull’s

Run battle-field; which you can distribute

at your Father’s house, as you like, reserving

one or more pieces for your little self – The

Boys can be suited and I am sorry not

to be able to obtain something more appropriate

for your Ma, Lizzie, Sissie, & yourself – Let

it be remembered that I didn’t participate

in the fight & that these things are not

trophies earned by me

With much love to all at home

I am most devotedly

Your own


[William King]

Confederate Artillery Captain, Saltville Light Artillery

MSS 6682

Thursday, July 28, 2011

1861 [July?]

A Confderate song typical of the rash of patriotic songs and poetry produced by both sides, especially in the first year of the war


[small vignette of hunter with rifle and hound]


Come gentle muse give me your aid,
Sharp make my pen as Ashby's blade,
That I may make a good selection,
Of scoundrels for this day's dissection.

First, Winfield Scott is on our list,
But gout has made him drop his fist,
For fuss and feathers only famous,
He thinks by proxy he can tame us.

Whenever Lincoln's at a loss,
He quickly lies him to the Boss,
For so he styles this prince of leaders,
This deadly foe of all seceders,
Who from his chair, scarce dares to move,
Lest his foot, for his feathers too weak should prove.

McClellan, from Ohio, next boldly rushes forth,
And leaves the Central railway to aide and help the
As fireman, brakesman, engineer, we make no doubt
he's good,
But o'er our Johnston, let him crow when he gets
through the wood.

Now rushes on with drunken leer,
That gross ensample of all fear,
Bombastes Furioso Butler named,
For lies and boasting justly famed;
Major General is his rank,
For which we heaven devoutly thank.

These are the men, the Yankee nation,
Has raised to the exalted station,
of Major General, let them be,
By good luck you'll soon farther see
And hear, from your obsequeous.

Broadside 1861 .S65

1861 [post July 21] Washington Camp Oswego

[letter fragment of an unknown Union soldier in Co. J of the 24th [New York]Regiment]

Dear wife I now sit down to let you
know that I am well and pretty
tough and hope these few lines will
find you enjoying the same blessing
you can see that my hand trembles
not with fear but it is vary hot and
I am out on picket guard about one
mil from the camp I have got
to stay here until tomoerning [sic] at
ten O clock there is one man with me
he is a stranger to me but we are
all soldiers together and Brothers
I hope I have a great deal to say
to you but cant say it all on this

[page 2]
sheet I will say all that I can
a soldiers life is a hard life to have
but we must not find any fault
or expect to live as we do at home we
came out two weeks to day on the out
side next to the enemy and have held our
place ever since we have not had
any tents to sleep in in that time
sleep on the ground rapt up in our
blankets under some tree i there is any if
not wright out in the open air it rains
very hard here when it dos rain and
that is pretty often to but we stand
it very well for all that, there is a
man that sets on the ground writing
on the same box with me he is writing
to his wife also his name is weaver
George W Weaver he lives at sand creek
or rather down below there about four
miles he has a little famely the same
as I have, we stand together in the
ranks and have agread that if one
falls in battle and the other dont

[page 3]
he that dont shall fetch the
tidings to the other famely and
his things if he can it is well enough
to have some friend by your side in
such times as these and on such business
as ours is our armies stand here a few
apart and we dont what will be
done the next time but I hope our
army will come out better the next
time if they have to fight but if it
will have be settled without any more
blood shead if it can be done honerable
but if we have to fight may we do it
like men not like beasts as the South
have our sid[e] sent a flag of truce to
bring the wounded to Washington but
but they would not receive it but
gave the man just ten minutes to get
out of the reach of their guns and
he had to run for his life I see the
waggons when they went out and when
they came back it seamed that we
could not have our wounded men to
take care of them but it was so them

[page 4]
that were there said the rascals
even fired into a church full of our
wounded that is worse the heathans
you have heard all about the battle
as much as we or or more although we
are within a few miles of the fields
so I will write something else that
concerns you more we recieved our
pay day before yesterday and to day I
have sent ten dollars to you by
express it will go to Sandy creek to
Mr Mason Halsbury and he will
send or fetch it to you I got sixteen
dollars and a half this payment and
sent you ten of it and kept the rest
of it we shall get some more the 30th
of August I expect they pay us as
they see fit we cant say our pay
is due here pay us our money and
then we have to waite until they get
ready there is one months pay due us now
the last of august there will be another
I want you to write as soon as you get
this for I have not had a letter from you
these three long weeks it seems a great while placed
as I am I may not live to get a great more
and I want you to write as often as you can
Direct your leters as you see on the other

[remainder of letter and signature missing. A George W. Weaver was in the 24th New York Infantry which had been mustered three weeks previously and at this time was posted to the defense of Washington. Presumably the unknown correspondent was in the same regiment]

MSS 8474-u

Wednesday, July 27, 2011

1861 July 27 Washington, D. C.

Dear parents and friends

I have again got an opportunity
to write and I thought I would occupy the time in
doing so. I have recieved all the letters you have
written to me and also one from Franics Symonds and
one from James Jordan. I have been very anxious to
hear from home ever since I came from Portland I am very glad
to hear you are getting along so well but I hope you will
not try to do too much work it will be far better to let a
part of the work go undon[e] overdue yourselves but
you must be your own judges in this respect try to do
the best you can for yourselves and all will be well.
I understood by your last letter that you heard I
was a prisoner to the rebels but I am happy to say it
is not so we were one spell in a very tight place and we
have lost six men out of our company probably their
may be in all 50 men in this regiment missing including killed
and wounded, we were in the thickest of the fight & about
three hours in the fight we got all mixed up and part
of the time we fought on our own hook the main body
had begun to retreet before our brigade got there but we
did not know it we marched up to the enemy and drove
them into the woods all the whill the cannon and
musket ball were whistleing and flying in every direction
at last our own cavelry rushed down uppon us like

[page 2]
cowardly dogs as I think they were trying to get away
from the enemy we opened our ranks and let them
through and we got into disorder and could not form
again as we were before and then came the order to
retreet and we went in every direction the party that
I was in came very near being taken by rebel cavelry
but we formed into line and met their charge we
stood firm and when they got near enough we fired
upon them and in a few minutes they begun to retire
but they left more than half their men behind, out
one company that charged uppon the Zouaves but six
got away alive it was so in about every fair charge
we had taken four masked batteries and were was
driving them towards Manassas Junction and their bagage
wagons had begun to start towards Richmond, in fact
we had fairly won the day but I believe our leader
was a traitor and a coward or we should have held our
ground, but as the saying is every thing works for the
best I hope it will be so in this case but I cannot
tell we retreeted to Alexandria we are now encamped
about four miles from the city in a splendid grove
and our men appear to be in good spirits and anxious
to go back and wipe out the rebels from their strong
hold among the hills which we surely shall do if we
ever have a chance to try. I can get enough paper
here to write on so you need not send any more
try and do the best you can to take care of the
things at home and if you cannot do it alone hire

[page 3]
some one to help you and if you cannot get any
one let a part of the work go undone. I have been
a little lame since the battle I did not feel it at
the time I had a musket ball pass through my coat I
suppose as there is a hole through the skirt about as
large as a musket ball. I could see the cannon balls
passing through the air and when they came to near
I steped one side and let them pass on. I saw quite
a number wounded dead, and dieing on the field it
was hard to pas them but we were obliged to do it
in order to save ourselves from being captured which
we were lucky enough to do I have learned since the
battle that the enemys force numbered more than
three time our own our loss is small to what we
expected, it would be whill the loss of the rebels
must have been large in killed and wounded with
a small number of prisoners that we took. I do
not know where we shall move next but this I know
we are now under a general that is a union man and
knows something and the one that lead us in the
battle is under arrest and I hope he will be hung
as I believe he deserves I do not think of any more
news at present. Tell the boys and friends that I
cannot get time to write to them separately so when
to write a letter to any I mean the whole I should
be very glad to hear from any of them if they
feel disposed to write. Give my best respects to all

Hiram M. Cash
Washington D.C. Co. H fifth Regt Main V.M.

Cash here refers to the July 26 appointment of George B. McClellan as commander of the Military Division of the Potomac, the main Union force responsible for the defense of Washington.

MSS 12916

1861 July 27 Fairfax Station [Virginia]

My darling Jennie

I have recd your letters by David and learn that
Ned has gone home to Fincastle. I am deeply & severely
grieved that your father is so unkind & that your so much
disatisfied--At present I can do nothing. I can neither
go to you nor can you come to me I am 12 miles
from post office or any sort of public conveyance
So soon as the bridges on the road are repaired
I hope it will be better and you & the children
can come to see me if I cant get to see you--I
am determined to go up to see you so soon as the
leave can be obtained which I fear will be
some time--I hope the children are all well by
this time--They had a great alarm in Harrisonburg
on Sunday last from a report that the enimy
with 500 negroes was advancing on the place
Mrs. Mary Hineberger & Mrs Colt [?] were so alarmed that
they subsequently died--I am glad you were not
there & hope you can stay at Gordonsville until
I can make some arrangement to move you
nearer to me--which I will do as soon as
I can--I enclose to you the official Report of

[page 2]
our Brigade in the action of Sunday made by
Genl Elzy--You will see from it that we
all behave[d?] gallantly-take care of it and
pursue it carefully. I want to have it
published. I send this by Lieut Cowherd who
goes to Richmond

Yours very Affectionately
E.T.H. Warren

Mary Heneberger, wife of Andrew Ellis Heneberger, 1825-1861

Lieut Edwin Festus Cowherd, Company C. of the 13th Va.

[annotations by John P. Mann IV]

Fourth Regiment Virginia Volunteers and later Colonel of the 10th Virginia Infantry.

MSS 7786-g

1861 July 27 Richmond [Virginia]

My dear Mother

Through the undeserved
mercy of Almighty God, I have been
sustained & borne almost unharmed
through danger as great as mortal
man ever witnessed, and am now
able to inform you of my safety.
You have no doubt heard more of the
great battle than I could possibly
tell you now, as it would be impossible
for me to give you all the information
which wld be interesting to you other-
wise than orally, so I will defer talking
about the grand providential victory
till we meet--I was wounded about
3 oclk & after dragging along for about
a mile through the assistance of
Tom Godwin & some other kind friends
was enable to get in a wagon, in

[page 2]
which I rode to Manassas Junction
a distance of 4 or 5 miles--There Tom
Godwin got me placed in a crowded
boxcar where I spent the night.
On the next morning John Luster
& John Watson & others got me placed
in the baggage car of a train coming
to Richmond. In the car with me
were about a dozen wounded officers
& men--We were about 18 hours on
the way & suffered a good deal &
arrived at R about 11 oclock at night.
a gentleman named Bell went up to
Uncle Josephs a mile or two from the
Depot & informed them of my condition,
but in the meantime, I was kindly invited
by a Mr Harvie, who had another wounded
man with him, to go to his house which
was nearer than uncle J's. I accepted his
invitation, as his family were ready to receive
& attend to wounded men & I didn't wish to
arouse & keep awake all night uncle J's family,
who were totaly unexpecting, & unprepared for
persons or a person in my condition--

[page 3]
I received the kindest treatment
from Mr Harvie & family
Uncle Joe heard of me about 12 oclk
at night & ordered his carriage &
came after me. He found me at
Mr Harvies & immediately went
in his carriage & brought Doctor
Cunningham--He came after me
again with Dr Archer on the next
morning & took me to his house
Aunt Sallie, cousin Kate & the whole family
have been very kind to me--I only
fear I never will be able to return
it--I am quite well. Have an ex-
cellent appetite, & my wound though
at times painful, is getting better--
Our poor company has been very much
afflicted. Its dead are William Paxton, viz
(poor Calvin), bill, Bradley, Brooks
who died with fever of the brain & two
others whose names I havent learned
No death will cause more sorrow, no loss,
has been greater to his country & his friends
than the death & loss of poor Wm Paxton=

[page 4]
But I hope his gallant name
will be remembered by a grateful
country & will shine as a bright
example to his comrades acquain-
tances--"Falling ere he saw the star of
his country rise," pouring out his gallant
hearts blood in her cause, he cannot
be forgotten & Eddy Mitchell is
safe--I saw him only for a
few minutes at Gordonsville--
He was very [?] but very well--
Tell dear Anna to cheer up--All
is coming right after a while & then
our homes will be the more happy
because they have once been so sad-
I long to see you all--Hope to be
home in a week or ten days.
Much love to every body--
Your son
W. Alex. Anderson

William Alexander Anderson, 1842-1930, was a lawyer and politician, Attorney General of Virginia, and Rector of Washington and Lee University, 1914-1923, and member of its Board of Trustees from 1884 until his death. While a student at Washington College (now Washington and Lee University), he served in the Liberty Hall Volunteers as an orderly sergeant during the beginning of the Civil War, April 1861. He was seriously wounded at First Manassas on July 21, 1861, as part of the Stonewall Brigade, Company I, 4th Virginia Infantry. After being discharged, he entered the University of Virginia in 1863 and received his law degree in 1866.

MSS 2692

1861 July 26 Camp 13th Regt, Co. D

My dear Lute:

Various are the complaints of human nature

and especially so in these times of dangerous warfare. What

passing strange results upon a mans whole physical

constitution are wrought about by the mental imagina-

tion of dangers & death; shame on old Louisa for producing

such physically fickle sons, lamentable fact! Some of our

men are now in such condition as to be obliged to leave for

home though the “Blues” did not reach the battle field until

the hireling army had retreated before our brave country

men; Oh! for ^‘the’ health of our brave soldiers that our battles may

prove successful, our cause triumphant; through the polite-

ness of our invalids, I may be able to send you this

answer to your last which was gladly recd. on yesterday. From the

newspapers and other sources you have proba[b]ly recd.

full information in regard to the recent battle – near

here in wh. the chivalrous Southerners proved conquerors,

We receive all manner of rumors here by [but] you all will

know certainly more truth about the fight that we when

the officers shall have made official returns. You

can not conceive what immense plunder we obtained

from the rascals in their flight. Every thing you see now

is professed to be a trophy from the vanquished foe.

General Scott with some of the Cabinet were dining at

Centreville not far off but poor fellows, they were com-

pelled to leave their food with wh. was a large quan-

[page 2]

tity of Champagne wh. our fatigued horseman enjoyed

very much; among other rumors that have reached us

from Alexandria one states that old “fuss & feathers’

has been decapitated. I wish it was so; what a

just retribution; what an appropriate punishment;

he proved traitor to one section; treacherous to his native

land & cursed in the eyes of the entire South; how glad

I’d be if now in the decline of his life, having lost his

first (& only) grand battle he wd. be dishonored by the Feder-

alists. It is also rumored that Alexandria has been

evacuated, thus great consternation was caused in the

Federal Capital by the defeat of Manassas; that

Old Abe has resigned, and that there is a general fight

going on in the metropolis; But these are mass [or “mere”] fictions

I [or “&”] imagine any resistance will still be offered our

invincible soldiers. Beauregard wd. have made an

[-] movement Monday but for the terrible rain

wh. poured down all that day. Had the entire forces

under Johnston reached Manassas in time, wh. they

wd. have done but for the collision (result of a Yankee

trick), we might have pursued the fellows into

Washington. But the Gentlemen are ready to

leave. We are in the same quarters & know not when

we will leave. Ed reached us safely yesterday – we

were all delighted to see him, wish Pa had come –

Most of our brave men are well, the cowards are all

getting well & trying to get home. [-] meet with success –

Tell Ashby[?] to come on immediately & bring Dr. Gray & Dr. Shepherd

[The following lines are written perpendicularly over the previous page.]

with him – they can get in if they come soon. I will write to them

shortly – they can meet us in Washington – Be cheerful about our

fates & let us be from you all a few days & the Yankees will all

be whipped. A Yankee letter was found in wh. it was requested

that his wife shd. write to him & direct it to Richmond Va.

Our fellows are getting on well – wd. fight like all the

world if necessary for every where they have been too late. It seems

that the Enemy are dreadfully afraid of the old 13th – they

retreat whenever we approach - Love to all friends in

the place & elsewhere – specifically to Miss Lute Payne, Miss Mattie

Gooch, Miss Daisy, Miss Etta Ham &c &c. I think you ladies

ought to open a Hospital at home specially for those of

the Louisa Blues who have scratches – I went out yesterday

to gather black berries & recd, sevl. wounds in the hand – I have become

considerably sunburned since I reached here & hope to receive my

discharge from Service on application. Please write to us

Hastily And Affl’y Yr Bro.

F. Pendleton Jones.

For another account of Confederate troops drinking captured Union champagne see the letter of "James" below.

MSS 13407

1861 July 26

[from the diary of Wesley Hammond of the Dixie Greys, 42nd Virginia Infantry, Co. E.

Marched to day 10 miles. Arrived

at Huntersville. Encamped on a

hill side in sight of the town.

Quite a bad situation for camp-

ing. In the evening Lieutenant

Thomas, Sergeant Evans, and my-

self walked down to town.

Late in the evening Gen Lowery came ^ ‘to town.’

MSS 5526

Tuesday, July 26, 2011

1861 July 26 University Military School [Charlottesville] Va.

Mrs. Wm. M. Blackford

My Dear Mother
I should have
written before to you after the receipt
of yours announcing the safety of
my brothers in the battle of Sunday
but my time has been exceedingly
occupied in the Hospital here, where
for some days I have been chiefly
spending my time. The preservation
of my dear brothers amid the dan-
gers of the terrible battle of Stone
Bridge has filled me with deep
gratitude and joy. Though I have
as yet none but negative evidence
of Eugene's safety I presume it is con-
clusive though I would be glad to hear
positively. It was a mistake that
the Conrads of Martinsburg were only
wounded. I have the best reason

[page 2]
to believe they were both killed, falling
side by side upon the field. Also their
cousin Mr. Peyton Harrison of Martinsburg,
2nd Lt. of the company. These were
nearly all the deaths in the Border Guard.
I mourn the loss of my friends the
Conrads, deeply. What a fearful blow
for their parents, though they have
the unspeakable double consolation
(1) that they died Christians & (2) that
they fell in the discharge of a sacred duty.
I am told it was early in the en-
gagement that they fell, that they
had neither fired a shot. Besides them
andother one of my old college mates
fell on Sunday, viz Edmund Fontaine Jr
of Hanover, son of the President of the V[irginia]C[entral] R[ail] R[oad]
One or two of the Barbours of Winchester
were wounded. I know not how badly.
I do not now remember any other
persons killed or wounded whom I
knew or felt a particular interest in.
I lament much the death of Major Harrison

[page 3]

You all, like every body else, are
doubtless entirely engrossed with
the Battle and its dreadful con-
sequences, though it is considered
one of the most brilliant victories
on our part, of modern warfare.
I rejoice over the success but with
a joy greatly chastened, if not
almost neutralized, by the dread-
ful suffering I have witnessed
here among the wounded. I have
not in my whole previous life together
witnessed as much physical anguish
as I have in the last four days.
At the great C.S.A. Military Hospital
at this point in addition to the
1000 or 1200 sick, there are 400 woun-
ded, not less than 1500 patients in all.
At the University alone, in the Pub-
lic Hall, Chapel, and on the Lawns,
there are about 200 wounded men.
A few of them are desperate, a few more slight,
most of them serious, & many intensely painful.

[page 4]
The War Department has manifested
the most criminal neglect, I think,
in respect to this Hospital. There are
1500 patients and two or possibly three commissioned
surgeons. Without volunteer aid, by
which, owing to their numbers the
most of the work is done, the
case would be desperate. The con-
sequence is that Drs. Davis & Cabell
are worked half to death, hundreds
of dollars worth of practice is done daily
by volunteer physicians, who will
never receive a cent therefore I suppose,
-every medical man is as busy
as possible--and yet there is, at
lest among the wounded, often
much distress for surgical aid
I should say that there are a few
army surgeons here who came up with
wounded men for their special service.
In addition to the want of surgeons
there has not been sent here, so
far as I am aware, a single nurse or

[page 5]
attendant been sent here by the Dept.
and the sick have been sent in so
suddenly & rapidly as to make it ex-
ceedingly difficult to prepare properly
for their reception here. Nurses are
sadly needed--perhaps more in town
than here, but everywhere, at night
particularly, and among both the
sick & wounded. Male nurses are spe-
cially in demand I believe. Dr. Davis,
whose special charge is in the old Mon-
ticello House in Charlottesville, has 300
patients to see daily: this is just their
average hospital duty. Dr. Orlandoo Fair-
fax (an Alexandria refugee who with his
family sojourned here) is in charge chiefly
of the wounded at the University. He
has the efficient aid of some medical
students, and some from other physicians.
He has high reputation for skill &
efficiency, & is a most estimable gentleman

[page 6]
I have myself rendered a good deal
of service in the Hospital this week,
and for several days hence propose
to give most of my attention to
the wounded, to the neglect of
military duty. By next week things
will be sufficiently organized to ren-
der the present great demand for
nurses well much less. On Sunday
and Monday nights I sat up with
sick soldiers, on Wednesday night I
was up with the wounded in the
Hall, not sitting once, except on
a bed side in the 7 or 8 hours spent there.
Yesterday and to day I have done
a great deal of nursing, and to night
I shall be up until the "wee hours"
with the wounded. I have become
somewhat accustomed to seeing the
fearful sights, mutilations etc. already,
but some of the worst cases I can
not--nor ever can I believe--look upon
with anything like professional stolidity

[page 7]
I could tell you many interesting
things about these unfortunate poor
fellows, with whom I have asso
ciated and talked a good deal in
my nursing hours. the most note
worthy thing about the patients
is the almost uniform fortitude
and in some cases heroic resig-
nation which the sufferers manifest.
There are here 8 wounded prisoners,
who are in rooms on the lawn &
in every respect treated just as the
others, unless it be that they have
more attention and consideration. I
have been especially attentive my-
self to four of them, two of whom
have bullets through the body, dan-
gerous wounds. Another poor fellow
who is lie to die daily is very care-
fully nursed. His wound is fearful.
Drs. McGuffey and Howard are his
special attendants, though they are
generally active too.

[Lancelot Minor Blackford]
[remainder of letter missing]

The Conrad brothers and Edmund Fontaine were all alumni of the University of Virginia.

Dr. John Staige Davis, 1824-1885, was married to Lancelot's older sister Lucy. He taught anatomy, materia medica (pharmacology), and botany at the University of Virginia.

Dr. J. L. (James Lawrence) Cabell, 1813-1889, taught anatomy, physiology, and surgery at the University of Virginia. He was the author of "The Testimony of Modern Science to the Unity of Mankind," 1858, and was the physician in charge of the Confederate military hospitals during the Civil War. When yellow fever broke out in Memphis, Tennessee, after the war he was appointed chairman of the National Sanitary Conference and devised a plan that checked its spread. For the last ten years of his life he was president of the National Board of Health.

William Holmes McGuffey, 1800-1873, taught moral philosophy (ethics) at the University of Virginia from 1845-1873. He is remembered for the famous McGuffey's Readers which were used to teach several generations of school children to read.

Dr. Henry Howard, 1792-1874, taught in the School of Medicine at the University of Virginia from 1859-1867.

Dr. Orlando Fairfax, 1806-1882, an alumnus of the University of Virginia, later served as a Confederate surgeon in Richmond, Virgina.

MSS 5088