Monday, April 30, 2012

1862 May 1 On the road [Virginia]

On the road  May 1 1862

Dear Pa
I have but a moments time
& a heep to say, I am quite well & in
good spirits, I think it probable that
I will see Dick as soon as the great
victory is gained, I want you to do
me a favor & not hesitate one day
but if you please at soon as you
rec this go to Mr. Grant & but that
black stalion of  his give  him as high
as three hundred dollars if you
cant do better but I think as the
yankees are so close you ought to
buy him for $225--I send you
fifty dollars it is all I have in
my pocket the other five I will
send you by the first oportunity, I
met with Mr Triplett unexpectedly
or I could have sent it all.
dont hesitate to buy the horse & give
mine or your note for him I will
send you my signature write the
note over it I am quite able to
buy & pay for him  I git ninety
dollars a month.  please send

[page 2]
him to Jackson's army by Jack
Willie Buck With Cousin Willie Jackson
or some little boy I will pay his expense
he can ride him easily & lead a
horse to ride back bring him immedi
ately or I will have to buy another
that will cost as much & wont
sell for half as much

Please start  him the day after you receive this
& also send the key to my trunk by complying
with the request made in this note you
will greatly oblige your affectionate

Walter Buck to M.B. Buck of Front Royal, Va.

MSS 3064

1862 May 1 Fredericksburg, Va.

Fredericksburg  May 1st 1862

Dear Mrs. Noland

Now that our poor little
town is in the hand of the enemy, all
regular communication between us and
our side is of course cut off; so that it is
only by stealing stray chances, that we
can send letters out by persons going a=
way. In consequence of this, Oscar has
not heard from us, and he has been
left solely to your keeping---
We have no one out at Green Branch,
our old home to attend to having his
summer clothes made and sent
and after being perplexed greatly about
it I have concluded to take the liberty
of sending some materials to you, to
have made for him in the neighborhood

[page 2]
or as you may judge best and convenient.
I would not trouble you so, at any other
time, but under all the circumstances
surrounding us, I can see none other
expedient.  I send materials for coat,
vest and two pair pants; with linings,
buttons, thread, silk &c for all.
Enclosed $6.00 for the making of them
which I supposed would be sufficient;
if not, you will supply what is neces=
sary, and let me know by the first
opportunity.  Give much love to Oscar.
I hope he continues satisfied and happy
We shall always remember with grati=
tude your kind care of him--
Remember me to all your family, and
believe me with cordial regard
Yours sincerely
Sue Crutchfield

[presumably little Oscar Crutchfield is being tutored at the small school run by Nolands in Hanover County, Va.  The identify of Sue and Oscar is uncertain.  Confederate artillery officer Stapleton Crutchfield had a sister Susan and a father Oscar. Little Oscar may be a younger sibling or other relative]

MSS 6463


1862 May 1 Newport, Kentucky

Newport  May 1st --62
My Beloved brother

Your most affecti
onate letter was recieved on Monday
a gentleman brought it to the
door did not send his name,only
remarked that he had promised a
friend to deliver it: Is it not
singular that some of our letters
should be retained and others
allowed to go through: yours [?]
at least one letter and one slip of
paper were both recieved very nearly
together the letter being a long while
en route; We were all made
very glad by your promise to visit
us this Spring will not next week or
the ensuing suit yourself and betti

[page 2]
the weather is quite pleasant
now and nature looking very
beautiful it is a good time to
come a little farther south than
Ph[iladelph]ia you will find a very dingy
look house No 112 Front Street
Mr J had made every arrangement
for having it painted a year ago , Some
of the Painters appurtenances were
on the lot, but the war seemed
so threaten Ky very strongly just then
and I urged him to postpone doing
anything more to the house it is a most
comfortable and spacious home thor
oughly ventilated plenty of shade
and grass for dear little Em to
enjoy with out the restrait of being
dressed for the public squares in
your city:  We have since the
difference of sentiment purvades
every where a very narrow circle

[page 3]
of visitors so we shall have
I hope the quiet Enjoyment
of our own household: and oh
how irrepressibly do I long
for the company of some of
my precious family: be sure
you dont disappoint me
Carri and Lee left on Saturday
for Canawha so to spend at least
the month of May  G P Thompson
was with us a week and Delia
and her Father had sent such
urgent invitation all winter
and the family there are so aff
licted, havin g in 12 months lost
Mother Sister brother Uncle and two
well loved excellent cousins from their
midst.  I begged hard for their
Father's consent that they should
on on what is really an act of
charity.  Not a word from home since

[page 4]
[I] wrote last except hearing through
the wife of an officer who left
here to join her husband in
Wigfalls division , and wrote
from Richmond March 16th that
George had got there for Mis
souri nothing more , last Oct I
wrote urging you to come on here
and see how it would suit [?]
[?] to [?] Blackman
the surgeon standing highest
has more than he can attend
to and he says Surgeons are
needed there; however all this
can be settled when we write
Robert has been laid up in the
house two weeks with rheumati
sm brought on by throwing of his
coat and sitting in an open window
while heated with rapid  [?]
he has suffered greatly love to Celia
and be assured always of your sister

letter of Catherine Frobes smuggled across the lines to Dr. William Forbes in Philadelphia

MSS 15127

MSS 15127

1862 May 1 Staunton, Va.

[from the diary of Joseph A. Waddell, former owner and editor of the Staunton Spectator]

Thursday night, May 1, 1862.
Nothing of interest yesterday. Legh's folks returned 
home. Lucy and Kitty are sweet children, and both 
of them, especially the latter, "take to" me very much. 
The intelligence from New Orleans was that the Federal 
fleet was at the city. Not a word from there to-day, but it 
is conceded that the Federalists now almost have command 
of the Mississippi river. The first rumor this morning was 
that Jackson's army was on the way to Winchester; the next, 
and apparently more reliable, that Jackson was march-
ing into the Valley to meet the enemy at McGaheysville, 
while Ewell was moving to meet a Federal force in Page 
county; the third, that Jackson was at Port Republic last
night, and Ewell in the camp at Swift Run Gap; and 
 the last, that Jackson was at Harrisonburg. Coming home 
before night, I met the Express boy who was said to have brought 
the third report. He contradicted it entirely, said Jackson was 
at Swift Run, when he left this morning, and nothing 
indicated an intention to move. We have had no tidings for 
several days of the enemy in the West. Northern papers re-
port that their troops occupying Staunton! Another rainy, 
melancholy day. A number of stores closed doors, because 
the stock of goods does not justify the payment of license 

[transcription by the Valley of the Shadow Project]

MSS 28-258

1862 Chapel Hill, N.C.

[from the diary of Eliza Oswald Hill, refugee from Wilmington, N.C.]

Thursday 1st of May  Raining & very chilly--Had a long letter from
Mary--all well & her sister & brothers children with her--
Went to Senior speaking--Heard Mr Reisher--Mr. Martin Mr
McMillan  Mr Carr called at night to sit with Lize

MSS 6960

1862 May 1 Richmond, Va.

[letter of Wilson Miles Cary, Richmond, Va.,  to his father, begun on April 27, continues]

May 1st.  What a day for the first of May!  We have had two weeks of
almost constant rain & to-day shows no sign of being any better;
They say that at Yorktown you can sometimes see a man’s hat in
the middle of the road & upon attempting to appropriate it you dis-
cover under it, not only the man gut sometimes even his horse,
such has become the condition of the roads there.  I suppose the men
must have nice times sleeping in the mud & rain for the armies are so
close together that they cannot use tents, on account of their being too good
marks for the enemy’s cannoniers.  There has been no change in
affairs since I began this letter, "how long can these things last”?
as South Lemmon would say.  Our boys--that is the Md Regt.--is  are
with Ewell--wherever he is.  I am sorry to say the Regt will
be broken up--that is it will never exist entirely as it is now.  Men
of the class of which a large portion of that Regt. is formed never can
be made soldiers, such is my firm conviction--they think entirely
too much of what they have given up & what sacrifices they have
made & of their position in Society &c. They all want to be officers--
This would be treason if any of them were to hear it as coming
from me--one not in the service--but of course it will go no
farther.  They never have gotten along well & I can account for
it in no other way.  The appointment of Col. Stuart is Brig. Genl.
of the M’d Line gave great dissatisfaction--the only man they say
who could never get it up.  It is rumored that having achieved
his wish--promotion--he will now give up the formation of the Line
& that Jenifer or Winder (Sydney) or some other M’d man will have charge
of it who will do something with it. I hope so sincerely.
The twelve months men are now reorganizing & electing new officers.

[page 4]
& Richmond is full of decapitated officers with the longest faces--
(Rather an Irishism isn’t it?)  Our friends in the old Regt can I
think very easily raise new companies for the line if they choose.
Their time is not quite out yet however.
I was very glad to hear from Ma’s letter that there was some prospect
of our receiving something soon.  Such things here bear fabulous
prices. I paid only the other day $25__ for a pair of heavy boots.
In moving about so you lose everything almost that you have.
I lost the other day one pair of boots, one pair of shoes & a fine
black broadcloth coat.  If the weather should ever get warm,
of which I don’t see much prospect at present, we will need
the summer things very much, the books also will be very
acceptable.  I had quite a trip about a wee or so ago.  Mrs
Barbour  (who by the way is the sweetest woman you ever saw & very
pretty) wanted to leave Richmond & take up her quarters in
Danville, I accordingly escorted her down, engaged quarters for
her remained there two or three days until I got her comfortably
fixed & then returned.  It was quite a delightful little break in
our hard work & I enjoyed it very much.  while there looking for
quarters for her I stumbled upon a family by the name of
Womack, the old gentleman immediately asked me who I was
& where I came from--& finally decided that he had gone been with
you at Hampden Sydney--He was very polite to me indeed,
as was his wife.  I don’t know whether you will recollect
him or not--Jno. P.Womack is his name.  I left also at
Danville Aunt Mary & the girls (except Edith who is at school)  they are
living there--the board is much lower than in Richmond--they
are all very well.  Speaking of Aunt Mary reminds me of
Aunt Pat & her letter to Ma.  I think I never heard of
anything so coolly quite so coolly, so refreshingly impudent and

unfeeling in my life as her hope, that you “would be soon be able
to have the girls back again, as Richmond would before long
be in their our hands.”  If I had my way there should be nothing
here but a heap of ruins for them to take possession of,
should they ever get here--but of that there is not the slight=
est chance & therefore Aunt P might have saved her manners
& not made the breach between us any wider than it was
before.  I think she has decidedly put her foot into it--Aunt
Mary was very much disgusted, I hope Ma replied to it as it
deserved.  I can hardly believe that anyone would sit down
& gratuitously give such a consoling & comforting piece of news--
Ma certainly must have addressed her on the subject first & thereby
elicited the rebuke.  If we are losing relations there--we are
gaining fast friends here--for certainly no one ever met better
& kinder friends than Major & Mrs. Barbour have been to us.
Major told me one day that he hoped Willie would never leave him
that when the war was over he hoped to persuade him to live
with him altogether--He thinks that Willie has no equal.  Upon
arriving here in Richmond the other day--he gave him the a most
magnificent gold watch & chain, & a few days after Mrs B. presented
me with one if anything a little finer--a very heavy English watch--
The gals are now sporting our grand silver ones--Major has fre-
quently--knowing that the girls were living in  Richmond & not knowing
that they had any means of support--offered Willie to be of any assistance
that he could be--by money or otherwise.  Indeed he has been just as
kind as he could be.  He & Willie are now together on the Peninsula--
A man who came up from there yesterday said to me “Capt. Cary on

[page 6]
the Peninsula, is your brother, isn’t he”? I replied, “Yes,”  “Well, he is the
biggest man down there now, riding around with Major Barbour all
day.”  Imagine Willie “swelling”--  I heard a most ludicrous des-
cription of how they got something to eat there the other day--from
a Capt Hart--who was with them at the time.  Willie had some sardines
which however were not very palatable without bread--& of that they
had none, so coming across a negro’s house, they called him out,
while Hart went in & stole his hoe-cake.  Hart said he had
no scruples as the Negro would not have sold it to them. they then
made a sumptuous repast.  That country is entirely foraged
out.  As long as our quarterly accounts last, I will, I expect, stay here--
that is not a very pleasant prospect however, for the City of Richmond
is the most Yankee, extortionate, place I was ever unlucky enough
to fall into.  the people here are very sore on the subject--it
offends them very much to say anything about it, they feel that
it is so true.  The storekeepers are the most disgusting set of
people I ever met.  I used to think they were bad enough in Balto.
but here they are a thousand times worse, being perfectly careless
about your custom & with very impudent manners.  Certainly
Richmond as it is now cannot be a fair sample of Southern
cities.  I have been hoping to see Joshua S.---here before this time.
I want him to come very much, and wish if he has not started, you
would try to see him & urge him to start immediately.  My promise of
a place for him will remain open for him indefinitely.  Whenever he
comes I will employ him, but I want him as soon as possible.  I
don’t think he can be scared off by the gloomy aspect of affairs a the
present time, he is too good a Southern for that, or was when I last saw
him & I don’t think he could change on that important subject.
south Lemmon is now in Richmond, he is clerk for Jim Harwood--who is

[page 7]
a purser in the navy  I think however a letter from him home will accompany
this therefore it will not be necessary to tell his people at home.  He looks
much better than I have seen him since his sickness--but is still very pale
& delicate.  He can never stand the service.  George Lemmon tears around
here just as he used to do at  home.  One minute you hear he is at Yorktown
the next you meet him on Main St.  You cant speak of him that he
doesn’t immediately turn up & is always just from the seat of war, Knowing
more than anyone else about all the movements of both armies.  His
information he is always tolerably correct too.  He doesn’t belong to any
corps but always goes wherever there is a chance of a fight & altho’ he
keeps running backwards & forwards all over the country is certain to be
in at the death or the fight.  Willie Robinson has joined the Balto Light
artillery & when I last heard from him was orderly sergeant of the Co.
I hope he will have promotion, he is just in the right place for it, but I
fear his want of stability & steadiness of purpose will interfere with him.
Arthur is a member of the Rockbridge Artillery--Col Pendleton’s old corps--
He was in town two or three days ago with some prisoners whom he brought
down from Jackson’s Army, but I did not see him.
What do you think of the promotion of your affectionate Cousin George W.
Randolph?  I think I will apply to him for a commission, he could
not certainly refuse such a modest request from so near a relation.
The State of Virginia boasts at a great rate of what she has done for this
War, but I think she had taken better care of herself than of anything else.
She has the two first Genls.  Joh Lee comdr in chief & Johnston & the Sec’y of War, and by
a law which they passed the other day--should anything happen to the Prest
& Vice prest the successor would be F.M.T. Hunter, prest pro. tem. of the
Senate who was elected the last day of the session to provide for this
contingency--In case of his demise - Mr Thos. S. Bocock of Va. Speaker
of the House is the next on the list.  She is in a fair way of having the

[page 8]
control of maters for some time to come I think. Giraud Wright is in
town, he is on his way to join his Co, having just been elected 2’d
Lieut of Dr.Thom’s company in a Batallion of Irish Regulars.  He is looking
very well & seems in tolerably fine spirits.  Shirley Carter is also in town, he is
a surgeon somewhere in the neighborhood of Fredericksburg, when he is at home.
I don’t know what has brought him to Richmond, but as the girls would say
“he is just as sweet as ever,” & says the same little pretty things to the ladies
that he always did.  All this information about these young men will I
suppose prove a bone to you, but Ma can retail it to the “Girls they left
behind them” to whom it will doubtless be very acceptable, as, having no
beaux t home for their heads to run on, I suppose they will be very glad of
anything that will remind them of those they once had.  There are a great
many pretty girls here (they are mostly strangers & not natives of Richmond) but I
don’t know any of them not having time to visit them.
I suppose you are all enjoying Sudbrook Cream & strawberries now or will
be by the time this reaches you.  How I wish I could get up there for
a while to see them all, to say nothing of the strawberries.  I suppose the
children all talk by this time, as Nellie was trying hard when I left.
Tell them they must not forget Uncle Johnnie & Uncle Willie--& give my
love to them.  Give a great deal of love to Sister & M. W. & tell Sister
I will be very glad to receive another one of her long & interesting epistles
I have been anxiously looking for one from you for some time--but none
received yet.  I hope you will honor me soon. Tell Ma to give my love
(I suppose it is admissible in these times) to all the Yound[sic] ladies who may ask after me &
say that I want to see them all very much, particularly Miss Ida, Miss Alice &
Miss Isabel--Present my regards to Mr. Sydney Cary & tell him that a young
gentleman of “Peaceful leisure” like himself, might sometimes find time to drop
a line or two in this direction--How do you all get along at the Club,
is it as Southern a place as ever, or have the men of property again become

[crosshatched on page 5]
weak in the knees? Tell Mr Mc I forwarded his letter for him & hope it will reach its destination
As long letters and crossed pates are both things for which I know you
have a horror and as I have been betrayed into the former I
will endeavor to avoid the latter.  I feel however when I begin
a letter home as if I could spin on forever--I do so want to see
you all again. god grant that our separation may not be for
years  Good-bye--dear Pa, with much love to ma & yourself & all
at home I remain your devoted son  J. B. C.

I expect Jennie has told you every thing & doubtless much that I have
said, but it such a relief & pleasure to write home that I can’t
resist it.

MSS 1415

1862 May 1 Guinea Station, Va.

[from the diary of Lieut. John Tyler of the Letcher Artillery]

1862                                                                                                1st
Left Richmond 1st Morning of May
joined Company at Guinea Station
that evening, found them camped
in a low miry spot rained that
[transcription by Mary Roy Dawson Edwards]

MSS 6150

1862 May 1 near Yorktown, Va.

[from the diary of Daniel D. Logan, younger brother of General Thomas M. Logan, and a Sergeant, Co. B, 1st Special Battalion (Rightor's), Louisiana Infantry]

Thursday April May 1st 1862
Got a horse from Capt Palmer today   rode out
& saw Mullie – The legion has reorganized for the war
Mullie is one of the few Captains retained by
his men – he was reelected by a majority of 14 votes
out of 58 – Lowndes ran against him & was thrown
out- Dotterer also.  Came in to Wmsbg to get      
some clean clothing & my papers of discharge
& pay – All the men left this morning but
Capt Smith – Nothing satisfactory about the
fall of N.O. – I feel anxious to hear from Sallie
but cannot do so any easier by going over;
nor could I do anything by going there.
I am anxious to see first what is to be
done here - & I do not wish to miss it
by going away before knowing anything
dif[f]erent in regard to the fall of N.O.
& perhaps lose the fruits of a years toil
here while on my way to Corinth – Put
up at Miss Galts – with Harris & De’Laigle –
[-] find Capt Elles in town – Cannot get my pay
until tomorrow & only then only as a favor &
through my friend Capt Harrison – Moving ordnance
&c to Richmond today!! looks bad – write to
Fry today – No chill today –

Mullie:  his brother Thomas Muldrop Logan; his opponents in the election were Cap. James A. Lowndes and Lt. William A. Dotterer

[transcription and comments by Mary Roy Dawson Edwards]

MSS 6154


1862 May 1 Princeton, Virginia

[from the diary of James Dismore Templeton, musician and private in the 23rd Ohio]
Thursday, May 1, 1862
Left camp early this
morning after marching
about 4 miles came up
with Co C (which had went
out from camp No 3 two nights
before) which had just had
a severe skirmish 1 killed
& 14 wounded.  We followed
up & the Cavalry had a skirm-
ish also another this evening
South of this place.  Several
Rebels have been killed, wound-
ed & taken prisoner.  Had to skip [?]
& ford Blackstone River
When we arrived here found
the place in flames most of
the houses burned.  I was the first
to enter town Rained most
of the day very mudy hard
traveling Marched 22 miles
country very mountainous
now most clear A day full
of events Long to be Remem
bered.  feel well but Tired
Howitzers fired into town.

MSS 10317

1862 May 1 New Bern, N. C.

[from the diary of Jesse Calvin Spaulding,  Co. F, 25th Massachusetts]

May 1

Sat in a stuffed rocking chair
on my beat last night. After
coming off guard scoured up my things
and got ready for inspection, but it rained
so we did not have any.

MSS 11293

1862 May 1 Lynchburg, Va.

[from the diary of William M. Blackford of Lynchburg, Va, former diplomat, bank officer and editor, with five sons in the Confederate Army]
Thursday May 1--More rain and disa
greeable weather--Letter from Eugene
27 ult--also from William, who
sends his wife a letter of recommendation
from Stuart, cordially  forwarded[?] by Johns
ton speaking of him in the most [?]
[?] terms of praise and urging his
appointment in the Engineer Corps.  Bal
lard Preston has interested himself warm
-ly in the application and I presume
it wil be successful.  He lost his election
by refusing to support Jones for the
colonelcy--I am awaiting with anx
iety the reorganization of the 5 Ala
as I think Eugene will be made a
field officer.  He will have all the
influence of Gen Rodes. But for the con
scription law he would have been ap
proved L. Col. of 12 Ala.

MSS 4763

1862 April 30 Yorktown, Va.

Yorktown--Bivouac  30th April 1862

Dear Mother,
                       Much to my regret I am not able to
announce my promotion as I had somewhat anticipa
ted--As I had led you to believe that I would be upon the
staff I must explain why I am yet in the company.
Genl. Rodes sent for me two days before our reorganization
which was on the 28th inst. and desired me to run for the
Colonelcy of ours, being knid[sic] enough to say that he a preferred
that I should be the Col. of his old regt. to any other man
in it. This I was obliged to decline as I had been somewhat
compromised with a Capt. in the Regt. who had solicited
my vote & influence, sometime f before. I however an-
nounced my name self as a candidate for the Lt. to
such as questioned me about it, but I found afterwards that
owing to the command being scattered on duty it was not
generally known--My opponent having principles which
would permit him to such a thing canvassed the regt. diligently
making promises here and there &c &c--Of course I would not
do this, tho' I do not blame Capt. Hall, it is considered very
honorable & proper in his country.  Still I would not have
been defeated had he not discovered somehow  that a com-
pany from the  6th Ala. had that morning been transferred
to us & would come over to vote--The vote of this company was
unanimously for him! (?)  and I was defeated by a few votes.
Had Not I been so compromised as to be unable to become
a candidate for the Colonelcy I would have had scarcely
any opposition.  The Capt who was elected tho' a gentleman
was so unfit for it that the men (200 of them) voted for a man
from a nother Regiment.

[page 2]
I don't know whether I ought to blame Capt. H. for going over
and securing the vote of the new company--I may have
been all right--It merely defers my promotion for a
longer period.  I am now the senior Capt. of the Regt. ranking
them all by nearly a 12 months--in case of a vacancy
I rise nolens volens--tho' I am anxious to avoid the
Major's grade, where there is too little to do.   I am completely
broken up now, not a single one of the Old Capts were reelected;
and the new Lieuts are horrible.  Our new staff is of such
a calibre that I am almost the real Col. doing pretty much
as I please.  Our Col. & Lt.Col are good fellows, but perfect
nonentities.  Great regret seemed to be manifest at my refusal
to run for the the chief command.  My men are hugely delighted at
my defeat, tho' every one voted for me.   x    x  the worst
of it is over now.  I think writing home about it worse than any
thing else---   I am now absolutely in rags, being
forced to wear my overcoat at all times, for other reasons
than keeping myself protected from these vile winds--By the
way, we are now at the mid of April and not one sunny day
have we had on this Peninsula,  verily the war sees to
change the course of nature.  It is so cold that I sit over a
fire at noon day--One of my very best soldiers was mortally
wounded in the trenches last night.  He was shot about 2 o'clock
I was up with him until day, there are hopes of his recovery
but that is all.  I sent him to Richmond to day with a good nurse.
A Yankee picket about 500 yards off, and sent the ball close
to my knee, I saw the smoke of his gun, & moved a little which
dub doubtless saved me. There is but little danger from the sharpshooters
if you keep a look out.  They are arrant cowards and never come out
as our men do, who afford them a constant mark.  Best love to all
Your aff son Eugene Blackford.

Eugene Blackford, 1839-1914, Captain, Co. A, 5th Alabama

MSS 6403-k

Sunday, April 29, 2012

1862 [April?]

[written some time after the first battle of Kernstown]

we have not received a letter
from Bro. Will yet, but Pa sent one
of the colored boys up to Lafayette
today to ascertain whether Capt
Deyerle's or Mr. Taylor's has heard
from the camp.  One of Mr. Taylor's
sons had just gotten home before
the boy got there.  He was wounded
in the arm.  He knew nothing
about the rest of  his camp but
Bro. will--they were so scattered
and confused that they hadn't
gotten together when he left
Friday morn.  Brother Will was
wounded in the hand, the ball
entering the back of his hand,
come out in the palm and grazed
his two middle fingers.  Bro Will
stayed in a Yankee tent until most
daylight, when he found out his
mistake and made his escape--
He was sent to Staunton with the
rest of the wounded.   I can't see why
he does not write or get some one to
write for him if he cant.  If he doesn't
come in the morn or we hear from him
saying he will soon be home, Pa
will start to Staunton tomorrow, after
we get the mail--Don;t you [know] how

[page 2]
we want to see him so badly, I
can't wait looks like.

[William McCauley, Co. E, 42nd Virginia Infantry, survived his wound and the war, dying in 1908 and the age of 71]

MSS 14953

1862 April 30 Chapel Hill, N.C.

[from the diary of Eliza Oswald, refugee from Wilmington, N.C.]

Wednesday 30th  Rainy-- & very disagreeable--But we are
going to hear Senior speaking--They young men spoke very
well & had bouquets given in profusion--

MSS 6960

1862 April 30 western Virginia

[from the diary of Charles Hay, Co. H, 23rd Ohio]

Apr. 30th.
     Marched here today, a distance of ten
miles, & camped near the site of an
old tannery, which, with the adjacent
dwelling=house, has been burned, since
the war commenced.  You can seldom
travel a half day without seeing one
or more burnt houses, some of
which were once comfortable residences,
principally the work of secesh.
We were, on the route today, joined by
a battalion of the 2nd. Reg’t Va. Cavalry, who,
for the present, will be attached to the 3rd. Brigade.

MSS 13925

1862 April 30 before Yorktown, Va.

[from the diary of Samuel Johnson, 1st Massachusetts Independent Light Battery]

                       April 30th

To day were mustered for pay.  The rebs
(it is reported) are evacuating their outer
line of fortifications.  The day has been
cloudy, and at times rains very hard.

[transcription by Mary Roy Dawson Edwards]

MSS 8493

1862 April 30 near Yorktown, Va.

[from the diary of Daniel D. Logan, younger brother of General Thomas M. Logan and a Sgt., Co. B, 1st Special Battalion (Rightor's), Louisiana Infantry]

Wednesday Apl 30th 1862
Went to Lee’s House & Yorktown today – gave up
my Enfield rifle to Lieut Coffee – Saw Capt de
Rugnier [?] & others – The Yankee fleet has[?] 6 vessels off
Yorktown – Had an offer today to join the 10th La
Regt – with Col Marignys promise of his
influence to get me appointed Lieut in

                        Thursday– April 30th 1862
Capt  Barnetts Co – Saw Mullie & got a horse from Capt
Was taken with a chill & had to go to bed at 4
o’c – (my blankets on the floor) – The Yankees threw
many shells over Yorktown today & night
     Wrote Jno Didlake today

[Mullie: Logan's brother Thomas M. Logan]                
[Capt. William B. Barnett, 10th La.]

[transcription by Mary Roy Dawson Edwards]

MSS 6154

1862 April 30 New Bern, N.C.

[from the diary of Jesse Calvin Spaulding,  Co. F, 25th Massachusetts]

April 30

On guard at the first division
over a secesh house.  Had a
very good time, quite a chat with the
man in the house concerning the products
&c of the north and south.

MSS 11293 

1862 April 30 Western Virginia

[from the diary of James Dismore Templeton, musician and private in the 23rd Ohio]
Wednesday, Apr. 30, '62

This morning early we
were mustered and
whilst at breakfast
were ordered to fall
in struck our tents
and started early
marched about 10
miles and camped
soon after noon. the
Cavalry came up in comd
of a Lieut Col
then immediately
after camping went out
travelled about 3 miles
found in a house some
Bacon which we apropriatd
Passed through some
rather beautius marshes
Cloudy raining this

MSS 10317

1862 April 30 Lynchburg, Va.

[from the diary of William M. Blackford of Lynchburg, Va, former diplomat, bank officer and editor, with five sons in the Confederate Army]

Wednesday 30--Another most disagreeable[?] wind and rain most of
the day.  I have never known such
a season--Heard that William had
failed to be made the Captain. He was aware
of the combination against him and
did not expect it.  I confess I am
sorry & mortified, but it reflects no
discredit on him: He is admittedly one
of the best officers in the service. The
fact of his not being a S. Western
man was used against him. I dont
know what he will do. I hope the Sec
-retary will assign him to Engineering
duty.--He is in Richd and will proba-
-bly be home tomorrow. Letter from
Mathew Maury accepting invitation
for his daughter Mary to come here
which she will do at the proper time.
Letter also from Kean, who thinks no-
thing can be done for  [?] but to have
a substitute.
News from every quarter bad--the en
emys fleet 13 vessels--and among them
the steam frigate Hartford, one of the
most formidable in the service--are ly
-ing on the River at N.O.--threatening
to shell the city--The President has
ordered back the army of Lovell &
assigned Bragg to the command--Unless
the enemy land their army from
Ship Island, they cannot hold the city
and I presume it would not be their
[?] to hold it.  altogether it is a
most extraordinary state of things &
I do not see the solution.
I attended at night in the Church
the marriage ceremony of Capt Sitgreaves
of S. C. and Miss Bev. Rudd.  they
knew each other but a week before
their engagement.  I am glad she as
at length attained the object of her
ardent  [?] --Mary J. was
an attendant--returned to [?]
and did not come home until past

MMS 4763

Saturday, April 28, 2012

1862 April 29 near Yorktown, Va.

Camp Near Yorktown
April 29th
Dear Cousin I received your letter of the
sixth since I have bin at this place an
was glad to here from you all.  I would
have ritten to you be fore now but we
have bin posted on the out post an I have
ent had the chance  this leaves mi self &
Jimey well an much hope en these few lines
may find you injoying the same blessing.
we have a good eal of sickness here, at least
a good meny that are unable for service
we have had a very hard time since we left
Orange CH. we havent got any tents nor I
dont reaken we will have any whayle we sta
here,  we have to sta in entrenchment every
other day an night, the entrenchments
we sta in are n in a quarter of a mile of the
yankees,s  they are constant shoot ing at
us and thwrowen barms over us.  We have ent
got but one of our men wounded sence we
have bin here, but some are get en woun
ded everay day on sum ciled.
we erlected our arfecers to day for the
next too yers,  we erlected Badgett
Capten, Price first Lieutenant, Sam
swanson secant, & John Herndon third.

[page 2]
I will come to a close as I havent much news
to write, you must excuse this badley rit
letter an write soon, give mi best respects
all the famaly write soon and direct your
letter to yorktown, Va.  Noth en more at
present but remain
your your frend

John Booker to
Miss unity Blair

John and James Booker, of Pittsylvania were in Co. D of the 38th Virginia (Whitmell Guards)

MSS 11237

John Booker

1862 April 29 Fort Albany, N.Y.

Fort Albany  Apr 29/62
6 o'clk P.M.
Beloved Wife,  [Priscilla]
I received your last about
half an hour ago.  I thought as I had nothing
to do I would write you a few lines--It
has been raining most of the day, but has
now cleared away and is very pleasant
and warm I was very glad to hear from
you. How glad I am to hear that your
Mother is better, and that the children are
well and hearty, how I should like to
see them,  I hope now that you have
got some help, you will feel better
and have an easier time, than you have
for the last month.
T-morrow we are to be mustered into
the service, and sign the Pay Roll
I believe it is necessary to go through
that operation in order to get our

[page 2]
pay, I dont understand much about it
neither do I want to, so long as we get
our money.  Perhaps Fitzwilliam can tell
you more about it than I can.
About those shirts you need not trouble
yourself any more about them. I can
get along very well without for the pres-
ent, as it is coming warm weather and
pay-day is to be shortly.  We can make some
arrangement after that comes, I should
rather have a good large Box of goodies
at present, than the shirts, not that
we dont have enough to eat, but that
goodies work in handy sometimes in
so large a family as I have got.  You
must let Ellen know when you get
ready to send also Mary Anne, Dont
forget to put some of the Indian Weed
in one corner, for that you must know
is the "grand comforter" if a Soldier & Sailor

[page 3]
I shall endeavor to see J. B. when I go
to Washington again, I thank him for
his offers of kindness, and will try and appreciate
Tell Mrs Perkins her boy is well and hearty
and seems to enjoy himself, first rate
I let him read the lines you wrote,
This morning we got the official report of the
capture of New Orleans, and it makes the
"Boys" feel first rate, I forgot to tell you
that Pratt, the great American traveller has
been here for the last two or three weeks, he
gave us some "highfaluitian" speeches I can
tell you, the "Boys" had to play all manner
of tricks on him in order to drive him
away, he was a regular nusuiance.
I did not intend to write but a line or two
when I began, and as what I have scribbled
dont amount to much, and the Boys are coming
in to the tent for the night, I will close,
Good night dear ones, Write often, God bless you

Robert: unidentified soldier in the 14th Massachusetts Heavy Artillery

MSS 1242

pay, I dont understand muc

1862 April 29 Staunton, Va.

[from the diary of Joseph Addison Waddell, former editor and owner of the Staunton Spectator]

Tuesday night, April 29, 1862.
The feeling to-day has been more hopeful. New Orleans 
not occupied by the enemy at last dates, Gen. Lovell suspected 
of treachery, unjustly. Gen. Johnson in town nearly all day. It is said 
that our scouts went to foot of Shenandoah Mt. yesterday, 
and found no enemy. Jackson has sent here for battle 
flags, ambulances +c. The last arrival from his camp re-
ports a reinforcement of 12000 men. Sam Robinson of 
Richmond came up to-day — Says troops are pouring 
through the South towards Fredericksburg. He + Ma-
son are going to Roaring Run Iron Works to see about 
a lease of that place by the Government. It occurred to me 
that I would like to be connected with the enterprise. Went 
to see Mason — found him in bed — Said he had been 
thinking about it, and wanted to propose it to me this 
evening when we were interrupted. 

[transcription by the Valley of the Shadow Project]

MSS 38-258              

1862 April 29 before York Town

[from the diary of Samuel Johnson of the 1st Massachusetts Independent Light Battery]

                       April 29th

To day the cannonading at the Point
continues quite heavy and rapid.  also a
brisk fire from Yorktown is added to
it.  News of the capture of New Orleans
and the forts on the lower Mississippi
reach us to day.  Pleasant and quite

[transcription by Mary Roy Dawson Edwards]

MSS 8493

1862 April 29 near Yorktown, Va.

[from the diary of Daniel D. Logan, younger brother of General Thomas M. Logan, and a Sgt., Co. B, 1st Special Battalion (Rightor's), Louisiana Infantry]

                        Tuesday – April 29th 1862
Went to the battery again this
morning,  Bob Harve [?] took a shot
with my rifle, & made a yank
get down out of a tree – the officer
would not allow us to shoot as
usual – I was taken with a chill &
fever today at 12 o’c – upon referring
back find that it is just 21 days
since my last – this could have been
avoided by taking quinine – had I
thought of it – The Co rec’d orders
today for our four Companies to go
to Sprattleys   Capt Smith went to
Wms’burg to get transportation papers
today – We hear today that N.O. has
not been taken – the accts are very
varing – Our battalion is broken up today –
the men all going South – Co “C’ & the S’
Greys remain in under the Con-         
-scription act – It is very sad to
part with the comrades of twelve
mo’s hardships – I was too sick
to go to Camp with them – but
remained in Camp Rawle with Jim –
towards night Everything is very
still - & lovely – I bid good-bye to
many of the boys, not expecting to
go South myself at present – I do
not wish to leave here before the great
fight is over – a letter from Jno Didlake
rec’d today (24th date)

[transcription by Mary Roy Dawson Edwards]

MSS 6154


1862 April 29 Chapel Hill, N.C.

[from the diary of Eliza Oswald Hill,  refugee from Wilmington, N.C.]

Tuesday 28  [sic]--Sewed all morning--& at night attended the
young ladies concert--Money for the NC Gunboat fund--
They performed very well--& no doubt made over a hun
dred dollars as the Chapel was crowded--We all went
from the Hotel 9 ladies & 2 gentlemen--Tom & Mr Davis

MSS 6960

1862 April 29, New Bern, N.C.

[from the diary of Jesse Calvin Spaulding,  Co. F, 25th Massachusetts]

April 29

Had a very good beat where I
was, but did not sleep very well
last night.  Lay on the counter with Phineas
Read some to day and washed my clothes
Had the customary drill

MSS 11293

1862 April 29 Camp No. 3, 10 miles South of Raleigh, Va.

[from the diary of James Dismore Templeton, musician and private in the 23rd Ohio]
Tuesday, Apr. 29, 1862
Went for milk this
morning also this eve
Guard mounting and
Parade with Drill
Wrote letter to Levi Kress
Have news this evening
that New Orleans has
been taken
Cloudy with some
rain last night
and this morning
cleared off this afternoon

MSS 10317

1862 April 29 Lynchburg, Va.

[from the diary of William M. Blackford of Lynchburg, Va, former diplomat, bank officer and editor, with five sons in the Confederate Army]

Tuesday  29  clear and pleasant and
most genial.  very busy in Bank, and
much engaged otherwise--news from
N.O. better  city not surrendered
altogether the affair is painfully
[?] and very disgraceful--
Fort Mason has also surrendered. This
will cut off our communication with
the south on the Atlantic line
disasters crowd upon us--but
we must take courage.  Went in
the afternoon to see Jane Kean who
came last night.  I could scarcely
believe it possible that she had
been gone a whole year.  She
looks well & her children have
grown much.  Called on Mrs Stuart
who is now boarding at Mr Merri
-weather's--Her little boy is quite sick
She had heard nothing lately from
the general.  Hugh McGuire, a son
of my old school mate, Dr. H H
McGuire, of Winchester, and a
member of the Stockbridge Artil
-lery called to see me--and after
wards spent the evening with
us.  Sent by him an Indian Rub
-ber blanket to Laney.  Little Landon
continues very poorly--the Doctor
does not know what is the matter.
Peggy is improving--We have quite
a hospital.  Got Dr. Green to call
and see Dr. Berkeley at the Wash-
-ington.  He thinks him in a bad way
and prescribed for him.

MSS 38-258

MSS 4763

1862 April 29

My dear cousin Maggie

Yours as
you request shall receive
my early attention.  You will
not I hope cousin Maggie think
that I have failed at any time to appreciate your corres
pondence, if I tell you it is
more interesting now than ever.
My correspondence has grown
quite limited; confined now
to yourself, cousin Kate and
Mr.Repass, all possessing my
warmest friendship, and more
than worthy of my highest regard.
You have no idea cousin Maggie
how painful it is to be deprived of communication with home; es
pecially when the privation is
occasioned by the occupation of
our county by the Federals.
I  received a letter from home
this evening; the first I have

[page 2]
had from there for several
weeks, and the last I expect
to get for a long time.  It was
mailed at Staunton by my broth
er (Abram) who left home with some forces for
some point outside of Yankee
occupation. I expect to hear
from him in a short time.
Our county is represented
as being in a deplorable situ-
ation.  The Yankees had arrested
quite a number of persons
among them uncle Abram, but
released him after retaining
him a short time.  They were
all well at  home except sister Kate.
She has been unwell for
sometime. It is very hard
cousin Maggie to be compelled
to remain inactive, and so
far from home, under such
circumstances; but I must

[page 3]
submit with fortitude.
"While we bear we conquer
fate;"  otherwise it conquers us.
I received a letter
a week ago from Mr. Repass.
His address is Williamsburg,
James City Co, Va.    He was well
when he wrote.  I am glad
your Ma has a partiality
for that dear boy; for I am
sure no one of her acquaint
ance is more deserving of
her esteem--------------
Your sweethearts regi-
ment is on the Peninsula
I suppose he will share
the glories of the anticipated
battle.  You can blush, cousin
Maggie, with honest pride to
tell of his deeds of valor;
and of fame earned "near
the flashing of the guns."

[page 4]
And you have not heard from
him for so long!  But this
does not seem strange to
me, when I consider that
he bears to you the relation
of "sweetheart."  Who that pre-
sumes to judge of the nature
of the "tender  thought," consid-
ersit otherwise, than incoon-
stant, vaccillating, and unreal?
Were it a requisition of that
pure feeling of the heart, the
only real approach to that
mythical passion denominated
Love--the joy of life--Friendship
that he failed to comply with,
I should then think it strange.
But never cousin Maggie need
you expect when friendship
is overshadowed by that pro-
fessed warmer passion; to find
ought else in the human
heart than inconstancy;
O, excuse me my dear cousin;
perhaps I have been presuming

[across left and top margin of page 1]
too much.  I do not correspond with your amant
Please give
my warmest
love to your
Ma & Pa and
that dear
little girl
Katie. Will
you not
write to
me soon
cousin Mag-
Good night
my dear cousin
Yours Truly

MSS 14953

862 April 29 Mulberry Point, Va.

Mulberry Pt  April 29th 1862

Mt dear Mary

I have just recd yours of the 26th
This is no place for Seman--I would like to have
him but he might go over to the Yanks, or be shot--
I think you all had better remain at home--I
have seen so many ruined by going away, that
I would advise all my nieghbours to remain
at home--I do not think the Yankees will harm
any of you, & Richmond will be int he greatest
state of confusion---I think the great fight will
take place on the Penla  I sent Mr. Cox an order
for some of my pay due me, & if he gets it, he will pay
you for $255---and you can have more, if required.
I have not heard from the Loudon boys--I sent
Noely a note--I sent Church a paper---And let him
have $20 as the day he came to see me Jack gave
him a frying pan  Church, Gally Thompson, Cosly
Capt Newton & the others came to see me We had a
long talk about Hanover--The Loudon boys are
near Yorktown--Tell neph I will remember
the pistol--Dr. Hillum is with me--I will send
Moslie Fent the violets & the dog knife when I find
them--Send me some more violets--and write
as often as you can--I can do without the
shirts--Love and kisses for all

Your Cal

Tell Frank to write
me & I would be
pleased to hear from
Mr  Chirstian---

Callender St. George Noland

MSS 6463

1862 April 28 White Sulphur

[from the diary of future University of Virginia Professor of Greek,  Milton W. Humphreys, of the King Artillery, as copied by him and annotated in 1893]

28.  About this time Capt Bryan, whose Company had marched with
the entire force under Gen. Heth to the White Sulphur, came to Lewisburg,
and told me that he had marching orders and would march on the
next day at 10 A.M. in the direction of Jackson's River Depot. I
left the hospital [being discharged, ti was understood, by order of Gen. Heth at Bry-
an's request,] I having informed the latter that the hospital authorities had decided to
retain me as a permanent nurse!] and took my knapsack on my
back and went, with great suffering with a seeming colic, to
the White Sulphur. I found my father there.  In a day or two I
took a severe case of pneumonia and was put in hospital. the
surgeon in charge insisted that I did not have pnenumonia [merely
because, when he asked me what ailed me, I replied "I have pneumonia."
He replied, insultingly, "You have not!" and charged me with sucking a
tooth to cause the blood. His name, I think was Duke].  Of course he
refused to treat me for that disease.  Fortunately!  About this time the force marched
--not as soon as Bryan had supposed,--for Jackson's River Depot.
I sank rapidly under my disease, and on the third day the surgeon
yielded the point that I actually had pneumonia I seemed to be be-
yond recovery.  On the 9th of May my father obtained a sick leave of
absence for me for 20 days.  Four men were detailed to carry me from the
hospital to James Carr's [prob. Kerr's] in the hollow up which the road to Cov-
ington turns [where afterwards the so-called battle of "Dry Creek" was fought]. But
by the time they carried me to Dry Creek Hotel, they were entirely exhausted, and
I was taken into the hotel.  I was carried on a cot, covered with a sheet after
the manner of a corpse.  So someone inquired who it was, and those carry-
ing told them, not suspecting that the inquirers thought I was dead, sev
eral persons went to the army and reported that they had seen me
carried out of the hospital dead.  --the next morning I was hauled
in a carriage on a bed to James Carr's [Kerrs?]  The people of the neighbor-
hood were very kind to me; even young ladies not only sent me flowers
&c, but some came to the house to see me [among them I recall a
Miss B. Dixon], who also sent me a bouquet. During this period the
hospital was broken up and the sick were taken eastward.

Remarks 1893
The Sisters of Charity did great service in the hospital.  I have al-
ways believed that my recovery was due in great measure to the
care of Sister Helena.--  Before I received my sick furlough,
I grew worse, even after the inflammation had left my
lungs.  My father (who was practicing medicine in the vicinity, being
a "refugee" from his home in Sutton, Braxton Co.)  came to see me
every day.  On the day before I was removed from the hospital
my turn for the better took place suddenly (how need not be described)
in his presence.  The surgeon also was standing by, and they
both predicted rapid convalescence.  (The surgeon now was
Dr. Granvill? Wood?, Dr. Duke[?] having gone elsewhere).  My fur-
lough was granted because the removal of the army, and
the approach of the enemy rendered it necessary to get
all the sick, as far as possible,  out of the way.

My father came to see me at once when I took sick, and insisted and
at last demanded that I should be treated for Pneumonia. My uncle, Wm
Hefner, was commandant of the Post, and told my father that he would have
me removed from Duke's (?) control if he refused further to treat me
for Pneumonia.  Duke then put a very large, strong mustard plaster 
on me and it was left four times as long as "was intended."  I
was burned nearly to death.  The nurse was not discharged or in any way
punished.  There is no doubt the pusillanimous doctor caused this to
be done.  He caused the nurse (Saunders) to slap me in the face to cure delirium.

MSS 1578

1862 April 29 Lynchburg, Va.

My dear Launcelot,

I was much pleased to meet
with Mr McGuire, not only as an son of an old friend
& school mate, but as one just from your camp
and who could give us all the news about you,\.
I invited  him to dine with us today, but he decli
ned but has promised to spend the evening with
us.  Your letters written on Sunday 20 and on thurs
day 24 came to hand--Nos. 5 & 6--I think--There seems
no number missing -- We got one yesterday, of 24
from Eugene--He is in command of Batallion in
the curtain of redoubt no 4 just adjoining the
lines near Yorktown.  He is exposed day and night
to the fire of the enemy and endures great pri
-vations without a murmur.  He has lost or mis
laid his baggage & has not changed his clothes
for a month--I trust in some of the reorganiza
tion he will be made a field officer,  You have
doubtless ere t his seen Charles & learned that he
has been unanimously re-elected.  He writes in
a sad spirit, however.  The death of his little boy
affected him very deeply--the remains of the chil
-dren were brought over and this day week

[page 2]
I superintended their re-interment in the lot
which Charles bought in the Greenwood  Spring hill
cemetery.  He has had a tent[?] monument erected
over them and will spend a good deal in orna
menting the lot, which is large enough for all the
family--I have heard nothing from Wm It is
nore than probable he will not be, or has not
been, re-elected. His Colonel we learn was not.
I think the holding election at this time very
prejudicial to the service--though I venture to
say, generally speaking, there has been improvement
in the officers, though some excellent ones may
have been appoint defeated--We took to our house Easter
day L. Rich. H. Lee, of 2d Regt., who was woun
ded severely at Kernstown--a very intelligent person
& interesting man--brother of the late Revd Sm
F. Lee of our church.  He has with him a nice young
fellow named Howell--You can tell Col. Botts
who is a friend of his that he is in our charge.
There are now some fifteen hundred sick here. a
vast number came on before the requisite
preparations were made and there was
much suffering in consequence--&  then too
the weather was horrible to remove patients
in--Dr. James McGuire is here and Dr. Magruder
of Woodstock.  Sue has seven boarders and
gets on very well indeed.  The necessary at
tention keeps her from brooding over her
loss--She does not suffer any how as Charles does

[page 3]
The news from N. Orleans is stunning.  I dont
comprehend it--and am sure there is mistakes
in some of the details.  It is not a fatal blow
to the cause but must be attended with the
most serious consequences--then too here is the
fall of Fort Macon just announced this morg.
We want now a soundly decisive and great
victory--We cannot achieve such on the Penin
-sula when events will yet be [?] in
[?]  Now that Ewell has joined Jackson
I trust [?] he will pitch out Banks and fight
him whenever he can--If he can be drawn
out of the Valley it would do much to restore
our fallen fortunes--Bev Rudd is to be mar
-ried tomorrow night in church, and to spend
four days here & then go south--she is a very
silly young woman. Most of our friends in
Fredericksburg stand their ground and ve
wisely I think.  On the 24 the enemy had
not yet crossed the river and would not
do so until the bridge was repaired and Dr.
Herndon says he saw no signs of preparation
If they attempt to march to Richd they will
be whipped. I send you by Mr McGuire
a real India - rubber blanket which Grantham
procured in Richd by good luck--Mrs. Kean
has returned & will stay here  a while.  Garlick

[page 4]
is chief clerk of War office--Salary 3000.  He
is very hard worker.  We had a large Congregation
Sunday and it seemed to me more than half were
strangers.  We have perhaps 30 refugee communicants
with two exceptions all the families which have
come here are Episcopal.  We have some very
interesting additions to our society. Mrs. Gen Stuart
is here and a very nice person she is--Your
Uncle Thomas has two Doctors & their wif wives
boarding with them.  Ben has a hospital at
Liberty--Dr. Green, formerly  [?] is at the
head of the hospitals here--He is a brother of Dr.
Green of Richd.  I have suffered much from
my eyes & still have a bad cold, which
will not leave me until the weather gets [?]
[?]  I have written this in great haste &
with an aching wrist & doubt whether you can
read it--I suppose your mother will write
something.  We dont know where to direct to
you.  I must now close. God bless you
Affectionately yours
Wm M. Blackford

MSS  4763

1862 April 28 Camp near Conrad Store, Swift Run Gap, Va.

Camp near Conrad Store
Apl 28, 1862

Dear Charlie
Your letter was
received a few days ago, and
would have answered it sooner but
for the fact of having to move
so often
I went to see Dr. Coleman
as you requested and stated
the facts to him but he
thought it was not necessary
for you to have and a
furlough, I am sorry I could
not succeed in procuring you
one, did my best to get it.
We had a reorganisation of
the Regt not long since Lt col
I was made Col. Capt C
Lt Col and Capt Moseley

[page 2]
Major, we elected Ajutant
Morgan our Capt, Granville
Gray 1st, G. W. Peterkin 2nd
& E. G.. Rawlings 3rd Lieuts
Sergt Rawlings went home abut
2 weeks ago on furlough, so
we have only four in our
mess  George still remains
with us and will continue
to do so,  We are now
encamped at Swift Gap, at
the foot of the Mt, and it
reminds me somewhat of our
last Summers campaign as
we are entirely surrounded by
Mts.  nothing new, skirmishing
going on at our outpost
nearly all the timek would
not be surprised to see Old

[page 3]
Jack make another advance
all are well and Mess send
their best respects.  If I
can do anything for you here
just let me know,  Have
not been able to send your
knapsack yet no communication
from this place to Rail Road
Hoping to hear of your
recovery soon

I remain
Yours Respectfully
John H. Worsham

Worsham, Co. F of the 21st Virginia Infantry appears to be joking about his election as Colonel. After the war he published his memoirs "One of Jackson's Foot Cavalry."

MSS 3091

Friday, April 27, 2012

1862 April 28 Camp No 3 10 Miles South of Raleigh

Apr 28th / 62

Camp No 3  10 Miles South
of Raleigh

Dear Father I wrote
to you Saturday evening
Apr 19th  We left that camp
on the following Thursday
being hindered until
that time by rains.
We marched about
5 miles and camped on
one of Floyds old camping
places.  Soon after pitching
our Tents it commenced
to rain again and
continued to rain all
the next day
Thursday morning Alex
arrived in camp I was
very well satisfied to
receive the shirts
although t I wrote to

[page 2]
you not to send them
I have since concluded
that shirts with
Long Tails are better
than short ones.
the ones that Mother
sent are just right
Alex brought me
a compass although
not the exact kind
I wanted it will
answer very well
The Change was also
very acceptable
Since receiving it
one of the boys offered
me 50 cts to change a 5 dol
bill.  Saturday morning
we again marched
5 miles further to this
place.  We have a very
pleasant camping place
again occupy one of Floyds

[page 3]
former camps do not
know how long we
will remain here
probably several days
at least until after
we muster which
wil be on the day
after tomorrow
The camp is a quite
pleasant one and
there is some good
country around it.
is however thinly
In your letter you
did not tell me
whether Alex gave
you the money or
not. Do you yet have
a hired hand at work?
how does Tom & Eli get
along?  where are you
building fence

[page 4]
You remember I
told you we had
a Contraband at work
for us  he took sick and
died very sudenly--on
Tuesday last We did
all we could for him
he was only sick two
days  The doctor pronounced
his disease Inflimation of
the stomache
he was a fine fellow
and we miss him very

I will write again
write soon may mother
write and have the
boys write
Yours Truly
J. D. Templeton
P.S.  Has Mary Anns Foot got
well & how many pet Lambs has she

James Dinsmore Templeton, musician and private in the 23rd Ohio

MSS 10317

1862 April 28 Richmond, Va.

Dear Phil  [Phillip Barraud Cabell]

Your letter has
just reached me in time to answer
by the boat which will leave almost
immediately--I wish I could go
up this evening to  your house but
am an present in such a peck of
trouble about an embarrassment
thrown our way by  his conscript-
tion bill, it takes away a consider-
able number of our members
who were re-enlisting men and
just as we were filled up with
a fine set of men we are thrown
back dreadfully; we shall have to
use a great deal of energy and
management to avoid being quite
ruined entirely---I will take your
horse, that is if you don't think she's
worth too much; a horse tough and
thrifty is what I need for the service and

[page 2]
I feel particularly obliged to you for
offering me one of your horses, after
seeing how horses suffer int he service
I don't think one ought to get a fine
horse for the army--Please let me get
a line from you stating his price
and whether I shall send you a cheque
or deposit the amount to your account
in bank,  I'll forward the letter
and message to Richard, and hope
he may get them but mail com-
munication is almost at an end
between here and Yorktown.  Since
I wrote we have been wretched about
the dear little baby who for 3 days
was nearly as ill as she could be with
bronchitis and catarrhal fever but
I think she is now slowly convalescing
thank Heaven  Her illness was very
sudden and violent.  Give my best
love to Miss Pink  I hope Jennie
may be able to take the baby with
her to see you all even if I should
be prevented from having that pleasure
In great haste as ever
Yours affectionately
A.Q. Holladay

Jennie would send love if
she knew I was writing.

Alexander Q. Holladay Lieutenant Co.. B, 12th Battalion Virginia Light Artillery

MSS 38-111

1862 April 18 Staunton, Va.

[from the diary of Joseph A. Waddell, former editor and owner of the Staunton Spectator]

Monday night, April 28, 1862.
Another bright and beautiful spring day, but the com-
munity very much depressed again. This morning we
heard that New Orleans had certainly been taken by the ene-
my. The last report, by telegraph, is, that the fate of the 
city is undecided or uncertain. Woodson, of Harrisonburg, 
 came up this evening. He reports that 5000 or more Fed-
eral troops are at that place, helping themselves to whatever 
they want — horses, provisions +c. Conflicting reports as to 
Jackson's and Ewell's movements. Nothing new as to John-
son's command. Seven prisoners taken near Williams-
ville, (as I mentioned last night) were brought in the even-
ing, and put in jail. The officer in charge of them addressed 
them with more sternness than I should have done. I could 
not treat a fallen foe with harshness. Two more prisoners 
were left at the Rockbridge Alum, wounded. Those I saw 
looked rather sickly and forlorn, and excited a feeling of 
pity, enemies as they are. William McClung, of Highland, 
was arrested to- day, because he came through with a pass 
from a Federal Officer, which stated that he had taken
the oath of allegiance. His business was to take back cattle 
which belong to him. He did not take the oath of allegiance.

[transcription by the Valley of the Shadow project]

MSS 38-258

1862 April 28 Chapel Hill, N.C.

[from the diary of Eliza Oswald Hill, refugee from Wilmington, N.C.]

Monday  Liz & I paid four visits this afternoon--after sewing
diligently all morning--At night we had music from
Mary Wilson & Eliza--No gentlemen called somewhat strange
I thought.

MSS 6960

1862 April 28, New Bern, N.C.

[from the diary of Jesse Calvin Spaulding,  Co. F, 25th Massachusetts]

April 28

On guard at the paymasters
third relief. Read some and
played euchre, but think I shall stop it.

MSS 11293

1862 April 28 Shady Springs, Va.

[from the diary of James Dismore Templeton, musician and private in the 23rd Ohio]
Monday, Apr. 28, 1862
Went this morning for
milk also this evening
Guard mounting &
parade with drill
practiced some [?] &
Foot were out and
got part of a pig
Had letters this morning
from Eliza &  Philadll
wrote this evening
to Father & Aunty Hays
pleasant partly c[l]oudy

MSS 10317

1862 April 28 Lynchburg, Va.

[from the diary of William M. Blackford of Lynchburg, Va, former diplomat, bank officer and editor, with five sons in the Confederate Army]

Monday  28 Bright day--scarcely genial as
temperature, but it is delightful to
see the sun for the whole time--very
hard at work most of the day. Mr Lee
not so well--I find in the morning
Virginian an announcement by Button
that Mr. L. is at my house--This is an
-noying and puts one in an awkward
position towards Dr. Berkley--What
possible use was there in mentioning
the fact--My incredulity as to the
capture of N. Orleans was not without
foundation.  There seems no doubt the
two gun-Boats at least passed the
forts & had come up to the city, threat
-ening to shell it.  There had been no
surrender at latest dates--but I
take it for granted it must fall
--It is a most serious blow to the cause
-I will not say a fatal one.  There must
have been great mismanagement. These
southern papers are great braggards
but when the comes they cannot
be relied on.  I was surprized[sic] at the
number of strange forces on the streets.
Letter from Lanty--also one from
Eugene--same date 24th Inst--both
will and both enduring hardships
like true soldiers.  Eugene in a dan-
gerous & honorable post commanding
a batallion in an advanced redoubt.
He has a shell 22 in long & 7 in dia
meter which was thrown from a
gun boat 4 miles off--Attended a
meeting of vestry. Went to Sues in
the evening--on return found Mrs
Richd Davis had arrived.  She
says the enemy 's cavalry were with
in 5 miles Orange C.H. and that
Ewells division had certainly gone
to Jacksons and would join him to
night--Letter from Charles announcing
his election by a unanimous vote--War
wick also re-elected--Horner & Alexander
made 2 & 3 L.

MSS 4763

1862 April 28 near Yorktown, Va.

[from the diary of Daniel D. Logan, younger brother of General Thomas M. Logan and a Sgt., Co. B, 1st Special Battalion (Rightor's), Louisiana Infantry]

                        Monday – April 28th 1862
Rose early this morning at 9 o’c – we formed under arms
& marched over to Camp Misery where we waited for
two hours – before finding anyone to report to – abt
noon rec’d orders to return to camp for dinner
& report in the Evening to dig rifle pits –
on the scene of our Christmas camp –
(Misery)  Col Rightor rec’d orders in the
afternoon that he need not report as
above – We are in a terrible state of
Anxiety today having heard this
afternoon that New Orleans had been
Captured, the forts Evacuated – the
Str Mississippi sunk to keep her
out of the hands of the Enemy – The
Richmond Examiner announces this
saying that it is official intelligence rec’d
at the War Department – I cannot believe
the news – It is terrible if true – a greater
loss than all else during the war

[The following lines are cross-written over the above page.]
   The men have concluded to break up
on the 1st & go to N.O. -  I am
not inclined to believe the News from N.O. –
if it is true I will probably go there –
Went to the Battery today & took 3
shots at the Yankee pickets – the officers of
the battery who [--] Say that I killed
but one – distance about 700 yards –

[transcription by Mary Roy Dawson Edwards]

MSS 6154


1862 April 28 before Yorktown, Va.

[from the diary diary of Samuel Johnson of the 1st Massachusetts Independent Light Battery]

                       April 28th

Yesterday and to day the 1st N. J. F. Co.  1st
N. Y. and our battery were busy disembar-
-king their pieces and cassions.  There
has been an incessant cannonading between
our gun boats and the batteries at                
Gloucester Point.  D. Co. 2nd N. Y. re-embarked
their battery to day.  Cool and pleasant.

[transcription by Mary Roy Dawson Edwards]

MSS 8493

1862 April 28 Camp in Lees Field

Camp in Lees Field,  Monday
April 28th 1862  3 o'clock P.M.
I have another opportunity, my darling wife, to send (by
Lieut. Small of the Mecklenburg Troops) a letter to be mailed
in Richmond, and although I have nothing to communicate
except to tell you again of my love. I cannot let the chance
slip without enjoying the luxurious delights of writing
to you, dear partner of my heart and life.  It is im-
-possible for me to give by words any idea of the joy
it affords it my soul to receive and read letters
written by you: next to those joyous emotions I
rank those feelings that agitate and swell my heart
when I write to you.  Often do I leave them unexpressed,
never do ti seek to express them in all their rapture.
If God spares our lives to meet again, I will try sometime,
when your arms are around me and your lips near
to mine, to find language that will convey to you all
the bliss I have felt when reading words traced by you
dear hand or when writing words that are to be seen
by your gentle eyes.  You, darling, will aid me in the

[page 2]
undertaking and love will so inspire our minds and hearts
that we will make each understand the other.  If, dear
wife, you were with me  now on this bright sunshiny
afternoon we would catch a joy, a delight from each
others presence that would teach our tongues to speak
charmed words to each other.  could there be a feeling
so rapturous or so delicate that the one could fail to
make the other understand?  I may labor now with
my pencil on this scrap of paper and will fail
to make myself intelligible: but if you were at my
side, if you lay in my arms, if I could look down
into the tender depths of you dear eyes, if I could take
kisses from your sweet lips, I know. darling, my
tongue would be loosened and I could speak a language
that would make plain all I wish to say.  How
happy I have been in writing the foregoing lines!  They
may read like silly talk, but they have given a thrill
to my frame and ecstasy to my heart as I wrote
them.  Forgive the, darling, all that sounds foolish
in them because they have made your husband
happy to write them.  I sent you yesterday a

[page 3]
letter by Lieut Redd.  In the
afternoon of yesterday the
Rev. Mr. Wharey preached his
farewell sermon to us and
left for Prince Edward this
morning.  His engagement
for six months ended at that
time and he goes to visit his
congregation & most probably
to remain with them.  this
Regiment is fond of him &
would be very much
pleased to have him as
their chaplain.  I mentioned
the subject to him last night
just before I parted with
him.  He said he could not
decide before going home,
and I did not think he
was inclined to return
to the army.  As you know

[page 4]
Mr. Ray is now our chaplain
but he is not liked by his
Regiment.  Mr Wharey's last
sermon was, in my judgment,
the best I have heard him
preach.  The text was "Be
careful for nothing."______
There is nothing of interest to
write.  The cannonading still
continues, sometimes pretty
brisk but usually slow.
When the fight will come
on I cant say.

The last letter I recd from
you was dated the 20th that
is the last recd was dated
the 16th, but the day before
I had one of the 20th_____
I am looking anxiously for
another.  Kiss the dear children
for me.  Love to Mrs. Riddle. Re-
member me to the servants.
I pray God to bless & protect
& guard you, my darling wife,
and our dear children.  Fare-
well, dearest.
Yr devoted husband

John T. Thornton

John Thruston Thornton, 3d Virginia Cavalry

MSS 4021

unswerKINF ns locw

1862 May 27 near Yorktown, Va.

Sunday April 27th  1862

My darling wife
The last letter I received
from you was dated from Richmond
on the day before you contemplated
return to Charlottesville--I suppose
you have returned before this--and
yet, if my means could afford it, I
would like for you to have staid in
Richmond longer--You would have
been nearer me and I might possibly
have gotten an opportunity of going
to Richmond for a day--dont let this
be a disappointment to you for it was
the merest possibility--I was on the point
of writing to your Uncle Tom, who is
on Genl Johnston's staff, to see if he
could'nt have me sent to Richmond
when I received your letter stating that
you were about to leave.
I hope Mr Ballard Preston may be able

[page 2]
to do something for me but I am getting
awfully afraid that nobody will appre-
ciate me but yourself--I would be
satisfied with you appreciation if I
could only enjoy it in your company
The conscription bill is very severe on
us, keeping us in the same company
whether or no, though we have the
privilege of electing our own officers.
I dont think any of the old officers in this company
will be elected and I cant imagine
who will be except on young man
 probably be elected captain.
I cant serve under him and therefore
want Jimmy and you will tell him so
to have me transferred to his company
it may not be proper to have it done
at the present time, but I must have
it done sooner or later.
I went into the box Mittie sent me just
now to divide the sugar tea & paper

[page 3]
with John Lewis when I came across
the candles and Mittie's sweet letter
for the first time--Kiss Mittie for me
and thank her for the letter which I
prize more than anything else in the box.
I hear various reports with regard
to the Yankees overrunning Albemarle
do write about it and let me know
what you propose doing--as I told you
in a former letter I want you to be
under the same flag with myself, so
that I may see you again, if I ever
can get a chance before the end of the
war--I have fifty dollars which I
will send you by the first safe chance
and twenty five in the Farmers' Bank
which you can draw, if necessary, with
my consent here given.
The two armies have now been within
a mile of each other for more than
three weeks--whether we will fight or
not I cannot say--
Love to Ma, Pa, Maggie Mittie &
all at home
I do want to see you so
that it makes me very sad to think
how little is the chance
With a heartful of love for my
darling precious wife I close.

Unsigned letter of Howe Peyton Cochran of the 1st Virginia Artillery

MSS 9380

Thursday, April 26, 2012

1862 April 27 Wynne's Mill

Dear Aunt Mary,
I have wanted to write to you
for the longest time but have not been able to do
so before this, and I have very little to write about
now,  but I know you are anxious to hear
from me, and I will write anyway just to
let you know that I am perfectly well.
We have been here three weeks yesterday lying
down behind breastworks night & day most
of the time in mud six inches deep, & have had
no general engagement yet, The Yankees
have a battery of four guns planted in the
woods about 3/4 mile from us, from which
they bombard us, all the time day & night
and we are not allowed to return the fire,
and it is the most provoking thing in the
world. We are so strongly fortified that they cant
hurt us at all and as we havn't ammunition enough
to be wasting any, we are reserving our fire until
they make a general attack and get in closer
range, when we intend to let loose on them with
a vim.  The Yankees are throwing up strong fortifications
all along in front of our lines, and have doubtless
other works between here & old Point to fall back
upon in case of a defeat.  I begin to believe myself

[page 2]
that there will be no fight here at all, at least for a
good while, I believe they are going to erect fortifications
here of such a nature that a force of twenty five or
thirty thousand men can hold them, and then take the rest
of the army and make a move on some other point.
they are certainly pressing on Richmond very closely
and I had rather they should attempt to get there
from this way than any other because I have no
doubt as to the issue of a battle here now. they
have been bombarding Fort Jackson for four or
five days and it is rumored in Camp this morning
that they have taken N. Orleans, but I don't believe
a word of it.  We get the papers now very seldom
and when we do get them, ther [sic] is hardly anything
in them worth reading.  I wrote to Nannie about
two weeks ago, giving an account of the fight
on the 5th inst. and I suppose you saw it.  I
haven't heard from any of you in Halifax but
once, and that was Nannie's first letter.  I am
really anxious to hear from you all & am
looking for a letter from Nannie every day.
I suppose you are staying about at different
places with your old friends!  It made me
feel really sad Aunt Mary, to hear of you
all leaving home under such circumstances
but it was probably the best plan, and I hope
& trust that affairs will soon take such
a turn that you all can remain once more
in peace & quiet at Turkey Hill.  I would not

[page 3]
mind it half as much if it were not on account of
dear Mama.  I know she feels as sad & low spirited
I have written home several times in the last three
weeks & have heard from there twice once from Ma &
once from Pa, they were all well.  I try to let them
hear from me as often as possible.  the mail now is
so irregular that it is mere chance when a letter comes
or goes straight and I understand this morning
that it has been stopped altogether: if such is the
case I will have to send this to R____ by private convey-
ance & I would advise you when you write to send
the letter to Uncle George to be sent down to me.
I suppose Nannie & Bee & Dinkie are all at
Leighwood?  How I do wish I was there too--everything
in the country I reckon looks so beautiful now.
I say I reckon, because although in the country
myself, there is nothing beautiful here, no beds
of Hyacinths & other spring flowers, to walk out &
admire after a good wholesome breakfast, no not
even a field of green wheat, no there is nothing but
almost one dense wilderness of woods and even
when you do come to a little farm, everything looks
as wild & barren as a desert & shows the destructive effects of
grim visaged War.  How is Watt coming on Give
my love to him & tell him I will try to write to him
before long.  the 1st Co Howitzers is down here and
about three miles from us.  I went to see them
the other day, but didn't see Cousin Tom; he
was off from the main body of the company

[page 4]
with one of the guns.  I saw Henry Williams
& Anderson who were both very well.
They think the Peninsula the hardest place
they ever came to before.  The Dispatch, the
other day came out with a very complimentary
notice of the gallant behaviour of the
"1st" Co Howitzers in the engagement on the
5th int. The 1st Company was at Orange C Hous[e]
on that day, and the gallant 2d should
have received all the honor & glory of
that days fight.  I must now close as
there is nothing else to write about & I reckon
you are already tired of this dull and
meanly written letter.  Give my love
to Nannie Bee & Dinkie & to all of my
friends & write immediately to
Your Aff Nephew
James P. Williams

P.S. April 28th I received a letter from
Pa last night informing me of the sale
of Turkey Hill which he had effected
within the last few days.  I have only time
& room to say that I am perfectly crazy
I am so glad. Just direct your letters
to Yorktown as usual.

J. P. Williams

James Peter Williams, 1844-1893, 1st Regiment Virginia Artillery and later a freight agent and superintendent of the Lynchburg Division of the James River and Kanawha Canal Company.

MSS 490