Wednesday, August 31, 2011

1861 August 31

[From the diary of Wesley Hammond of the Dixie Greys, Co. E. 42nd Virginia Infantry]

Day beautiful – Detailed on
picket this morning. The post
on which I was placed was on
a high hill. To my right at the
foot of hill are our pickets
oblikely [sic] to the right is a Team.
Reg. in full view of me – but con-
cealed from Yankees. Directly
in front on a small hill are
Yankees plenty – watch their move-
ments all day – At night repaired
to an old barn. Read 3 chap. in bible.

MSS 5526

1861 Augst 31

[conclusion of the letter begun by Hiram Cash of the 5th Maine on August 27]

Nothing of importance has transpired today. I have
not resieved my pay yet but I expect it every day the have
made out the pay roll and we shall in a few days get two months
pay there is some in this regt that say we are coming home t his
month Sept. but I do not think it is so yet and I hope it is not
unless this war comes to an end, we shall probably know how the
case stands in a week or two at the most.

MSS 12916

1861 August 31

[from the diary of Eugene M. Cox of the Albemarle Border Guards]

8 A.M. the sun light of another day has dawned upon us--all are cheerful and hopeful--8 P.M. Nothing worth writing transpired today more than we were mustered and our pay-rolls examined by the Col. of our regiment and are informed that we are to be paid off to-morrow--9 1/2 P.M. Taps

MSS 38-221

1861 August 31 Camp Bates near Washington

Dear Rosepha

I am now in that
celabrated land caled
Dixie, I have seen that celabrated
City called Washington, I will give
you a minute account of our jurney
hither. we left Syracuse, 20 minutes after
ten we arrived at Albany at four Oclock
in the morning we crossed the river took
the next rain for New York, the
Railroad laid mostly on the Banks
of the Hudson and you had a fair view
of the river most all the way and it is
a most beay beautifull sight to I can
tell you to see the larg stern boats
and schooners playing up and down
the river and we have a fare view

[page 2]
of West point it is one of the
most romantic places I ever saw
we arived in new yourk about half past
9 in the morning and staid there till
five in the afternoon we took our first
soldtiers diner at the Baricks it concisted
of two potatos a half a loaf of bread
a grate big chunk of meat and a pint
cup of soap. we had fun[?] enough over
our first soldiers meal I can tell you
at five Oclock or a little after we again
started. Each man taking one days
ration with him. We was feyred
acros the river to New jersy thin we
took cars for washington we pased through
quite a nomber of large Citys going
through New jersy we arived at
Philiadelphia a bout 10 Oclock at
night we thin changed cars crossed the
river took the next train for Baltamore
arived at that famous S City four

[page 3]
Oclock in the morning nothing of any
note took place while pasing through the
City. One of the boys rais to another clas
the blind, for sombody may throw a brick
bat through. we arived at Washington aboaut
7 Oclock in the morning What a sh sight
for miels around nothing was to be seen
but Munitions of war the ground in every
directtion is coverd with tents for three
and four milles from the City. We got our
breakfast at the baricks in the City we
then marched for our camp which is a bout
three milles from the City. just dark
our tents came we then pitched them and
bunked in for the night four in a tent
This morning while going after soom water going
which is about 60 or 70 rods from
camp I gatherd soom beautifull litel flowers
which I will send to ou in this leter
which you can show to your Friends as
curostys from the seat of War

[page 4]
I guess my Dear Rosa I will hafto
draw my leter to a closs as I want to write
to night to Mary and Charly yet to
day you will if cors write as soon as
you get this and write me a god long
leters to give my love to all your folks
resieve a good share for yourself.
Direct your leter to Privet Doran
CO Company I Coln Vanalan
Regt Washington, D C. Car of
Capt Joelneck
Pleas excuse my poor wrighting
as I hav to write on my knee
yours till Death John W. Doran

John W. Doran, 3rd N.Y. Cavalry
Colonel James Henry Van Alen, 1819-1886

Captain Gastorus Jocknick

MSS 8474-u

1861 August 31

My dear [word marked out] Pa,
I do n’t reckon Pen left me
anything at all to tell about our march & fight the other day, but
I will write something about it even if I have to repeat what he
has written.. Well, about an hour before day ^‘on Sunday’ orders were given
one day’s rations to be drawn, cooked & put in haversacks & to be re^‘a’dy
to march with our blankets at day. Our Co. with the Montpelier
Guard, the Baltimore Co. the Culpepper Minute Men & two pieces of the
town artil[l]ery, start under command of Major Terrel, commenced march=
ing about half after six, we did n’t know where we ^‘were’ going; after a
of nine or ten miles we came to Anondale [Annandale], a little village,
where we
rested several hours. We started again at one, went two miles farther,
when we came to Chesnut hill on Cap. Ma^‘s’on’s farm, where we
halted. We could see Washington & the Yankee pickets very distinctly.
Col. Stuart with a part of his ^cavalry’ came to Chesnut Hill soon after we
Co. Stuart took command of everything. Breastworks were laid off by
Adjutant Blackford of Stewart’s cavalry, in front of Mason’s house, & we
commenced work about four oclock. I worked harder on that hill than
I ever done in before in my life. The Baltimore Co. were sent out to
scout & they were fired upon by some of the Yankees in half a mile of us,
they returned the fire & soon drove them off, took one prisoner up a
tree. We stopped work about eight oclock & went to sleep on the ground,
but were aroused several times during the night by the fireing of the
pickets, their balls come very near us once & we all laid down on
the ground to avoid them. We were at work again early the next day.

[page 2]
We c’d still see the Yankee pickets on Munson’s Hill & their scouting
ties, some of which ventured very near to us, but a few shots at them
from our men w’d soon send them off in double qu^‘i’ck time. There was
a school house, not over five hundred yards from Chesnut Hill, in the
woods, w’h the Yankees w’d get behind to fire at our men, [several words
lined out] that house house was burnt by our men. Not [a] single
one of our men were hurt near Mason’s hill, a horse belonging to one of the
cavalrymen was shot through the leg; the loss of ^‘the’ enemy is unknown,
but it is certain some were wounded if not killed. We finished the
fortifications late Monday evening. We were reinforced Monday night
by a part of the Maryland line & a part of a Georgia Regiment. Our blan=
kets, overcoats &c were sent back here Tuesday morning & our Co. with the
three Companies of the 13th, the two pieces of artil[l]ery & two Maryland
started for Munson’s hill about eight oclock, we marched cautiously through
the woods & got there in about an hour & a half; just before we got there we
^‘saw’ a Yankee riding as hard as he c’d down the ^‘road’ & we were
ordered to shoot him;
I did n’t get a shot ^’at’ him myself but some of our Co. did, his horse was
shot & I think he was wounded. When we got on top of the hill we
saw a body ^‘of’ Yankees drawn up at Bailey’s Xroads, a miles off, we
expected an attack. Four prisoners were taken in a peach orchard
at the bottom of the hill. Our Co. with the Mon[t]pelier Guard commanded
by Major Terrel went to Upton’s house to search it, we found no Yankees,
but they had just left, they ^ ‘had not’ finished their breakfast, they left a
bowl of
soup & hot corn on the table. C.H. Upton is the rascal who pretends to
sent Virginia in the Con Federal Congress & he is now in Washington.
Reinforcements arrived soon after the hill was taken. Our Co. was
stationed at Upton’s, a Baltimore Co. was sent up the road towards
Loudon & Hamshire R. R., but were soon driven back, two being

[page 3]
wounded, they said the enemy were advancing upon us very rapidly.
M[a]jor Terrel the^’n’ ordered all of us to retreat to Munson’s hill, we had
gone over a hundred yards before we met Col Stuart who turned us back,
he said it wd never do for us to run. Our detachment (excepting the
M. M.) with two Maryland Companies, making five Cos. in all, were led
on, right after the Yankees, by Col. Stuart. We soon got in woods very
near to
the enemy, the skirmishers were put out to bring the battle on, the firing
commenced, but it was some time before anyone but the skirmishers c’d see
a single yankee, not until we got to the Loudon & Hamshire R. R., then
all of us commenced shouting, & the yankees too [word lined out] ^‘sent’
up a shout, but their
shouts did not last long, for we charged across the R. R. upon them
& you never saw such scampering in y’r life; but they rallied again
& for a few minutes their balls fell thick & heavy, they ran again [word lined
out] across
an open field & it was [word lined out] there that I got two fair shots, don’t
^‘know’ that I
did them a great deal of harm, but think I struck one, for I had rest on the
fence at him. I was right near poor Robinson when he fell mortally
wounded. The loss of the enemy is unknown, three were seen dead, I saw
one fall; our loss in all the skirmishes were five wounded & one killed,
we were certai^‘n’ly very fortunate. We were within two miles & a half of
Chain bridge. when we got back to Munson’s hill I was very much ex-
hausted. I was not as much excited as I expected I w’d be in my first
fight, though I ^‘was’ right much excited until after the first fire. Col. Stuart
as well as the men behaved very bravely, Col. S. is as brave as he can be
be & is a splendid officer. Lieutenant Winston also conducted himself first
rate, he kept as cool as a cucumber the whole time & gave his commands in
a clear & distinct tone as if he was on the parade ground. Our Major show=
ed a great deal of bravery & he raised himself in our estimation very much

[page 4]
I think he is most too rash. We had other reinforcements Tuesday night
& Wednesday morning, Aa part of the Washington artil]l]ery was there.
There was
right much of a skirmish Wednes. morning between Munsons Hill
& Bailey’s Xroads, a rifled cannon was fired at them at the Xroads
several times, we c’d see them running in every direction when the
ball struck. Our Co. was on picket Wednes night, we had a very hard
time of it, it rained nearly the all time, we were very near the Federal
pickets, cd hear them coughing on their post. We started back here Thurs=
day morning & had a very hard time in the rain. Bro Jno. was a
little complaining & Pen & I staid behind with him, we walked
on slowly & did n’t get to camp until late in the evening – all of us
were the mudiest looking fellows you ever saw when we got in camp.
Harry had nothing us a nice supper ready when we arrived &
you may depend upon it that all hands done ample justice to it.
After Sunday we ^‘had’ nothing to eat but peaches & corn, I used to eat as
many as seven ears of corn for a meal & peaches in proportion, I w’d
n’t like to say how many Pen ate. We had a terrible time after our
were sent back, we slept like hogs, piled up together on the ground about
four deep. It is the greatest wonder in the world that some of us were
not made sick, I don’t believe a single one ever took cold, & all of us
are ready for another bush fight, though we w’d prefer to have ^‘it’ in an
field. My sheet is filled so I must quit. My best love to all of
the dear ones at home, Aunt Cynthias’s & all of my friends & accept a large
share for yr self. We will write again soon. Yr devoted & most
Aff son
P. E. Jones

Major James Barbour Terrill, 1838-1864
Pvt. Marcellus Robinson
Frank V. Winston, Co. D
Charles Horace Upton, 1812-1877, an emigrant to Virginia from Massachusetts remained loyal to the Union and was elected as a Unionist to Congress. In 1863 Lincoln appointed him to a diplomatic post in Switzerland.
Jones' letter is describing a skirmish between Munson's Hill and Bailey's Crossroads, August 27, 1861.
MSS 13407

Tuesday, August 30, 2011

1861 August 30

[from the diary of Wesley Hammond of the Dixie Greys 42nd Regiment Virginia Infantry, Co. E]

In the morning skirmish drill
of officers. Company drilled
as usual. I was not able to
attend. Wrote to Cousin N. John

MSS 5526

1861 August 30 [Richmond, Virginia?]


To Perpetuate Testimony in cases of Slaves Abducted of Harbored by the Enemy, and of other Property Seized, Wasted, or Destroyed by them. No. 270.


SECTION 1. The congress of the Confederate States of America do enact, That when any slave or slaves owned by a citizen of the Confederate States, or an inhabitant thereof, shall be, or may have been abducted or harbored by the enemy, or by any person or persons acting under the authority, or color of authority of the United States government, or engaged in the military or naval service thereof, during the existing war, it shall be lawful for the owner of his attorney to appear before any Judge of the Confederate States, or a Commissioner of any Court thereof, or any Notary Public,...and adduce proof, oral or written, of the fact of such ownership and abduction or harboring....In all cases such owner, attorney or representative shall make affidavit of the loss. Such affidavit shall not be taken as evidence of the fact of loss, unless it shall appear to the satisfaction of the officer taking the same that no other and better evidence can be obtained...and it shall be the duty of the judicial officer...and within thirty days after the hearing, to transmit the same to the Secretary of State of the Confederate States, to be filed and preserved among the archives of the State Department....

Sec. 2. And be it further enacted,, That whenever any property, other than slaves, real or personal, belonging to any citizen of the Confederate States, or any inhabitant thereof, shall be seized, wasted or destroyed by the enemy, during the existing war, or by any person or persons acting under the authority, or color of authority of the United States government, or engaged in the military or naval service thereof, the mode of taking and preserving proof thereof shall conform in all respects to that prescribed in the above sectin, and have like effect.

Sec. 3. And be it further enacted, That the provisions of this act shall not be construed as implying that the Confederate States are in any liable to make compensation for any of the property to which it refers.

APPROVED August 30, 1861

E453 .C7

1861 August 30

[from the diary of Eugene M. Cox of the Albemarle Border Guards]

This morning brought with it the promise of a beautiful day--had a very heavy rain last night, but this morning dissipated the dense clouds that enshrouded us--we are now in a muddy fix, but this bright sunshine will soon dry the ground and we can again enjoy camp life tolerably well--yesterday upwards of 100 prisoners passed by here from the direction of Summerville. They were taken by Genl. Floyd or some of his command--Building of our fortifications here is progressing rapidly and will soon by complete and almost impregnable--Nothing unusual occurred today--91/2 P.M. Taps---

MSS 38-211

1861 August 30 Camp of the 5th M[ain]e

[Letter of Hiram Cash continues]

I was detailed to work on the fort today
they are making preperation for a battle about 500
Marines arrived here today to take charge of the guns
at the fort they understand the bussiness perfectly
of manageing heavy guns like them at the fort. A report
came to the fort to day that the enemy were throwing
up intrenchments within 5 miles of our lines and they
were expected to advance every day. I do not think they
will attack us here I think they will make an attempt to cross
the Potomack into Maryland either above Arlington or some way
below here and if they get across there will be a mighty
battle neare Baltimore but I think they will not be
allowed to cross the river There is a report that a large body
of our troops are on the moove with the intention of getting
to the rear of the rebels if they advance twords the river
our men will close in behind them and bring them between
to fires and as they cannot stand a very long time.

MSS 12916

Monday, August 29, 2011

1861 August [?]

[Anonymous poem written in honor of Holmes and Tucker Conrad, two brothers, alumni of the University of Virignia, both of whom were killed in the battle of 1st Manassas/Bull Run. See letter of 1861 July 26, from Lancelot Minor Blackford at the University of Virginia]

Soldiers of Christ! well done;
Brothers in blood; in life:
Your conflict's oer the victory won--
Ended, your mortal strife--

They stood upon the field
Calm, mid the iron hail.
Holding no thought their post to yield
No heart that e'er could quail.

Their souls were lifted high
To where they'd long been given
Nor cared they for the foeman night
Christ! was their friend in heaven

"Retreat" "Fall back" --was heard
As thick the missiles flew--
They heard but heeded not, the word--
Firm stood, the brothers two.

Then Holmes's cheery cry
His brother's ear did greet:
"Come, stand by me, tucker my boy
"We never will retreat"

One moment saw them stand
Instinct, with martial fire,--
The next--in front rank of their band
Right, at their posts expire

The messengers of death
At the same instant sped
As one, they yielded up their breath
Were numbered with the dead!

They say their forms inclined
Falling towards each other
As if the last thoughts of each mind
Was -- Thus would I die my brother

Brothers! in blood in faith
Brothers! in youthful bloom
Brothers! in life brother!s in death
Brothers! in one same tomb

Thus fought they "the good fight"
In death that victory won
Sprung at one bound to Heavens light
And God's eternal Son

1861 August 29

[From the diary of Wesley Hammond of the Dixie Greys, 42nd Virginia Infantry, Co. E]

Day rather rainy – In morn-
ing wrote to Father & Mother.
in evening read [word lined through] 5 Chap
in bible. Today our pickets
came in contact with the
Yankees. some firing done
2 [number lined through] Yankees taken prisoners
and 3 killed, one of our men
killed one wounded. I started
on picket but did not go.

MSS 5526

1861 August 29 Camp of the 5th M[ain]e

[letter of Hiram Cash a private in the 5th Maine continues]

We have been detaled to day to go out and
guard the axmen in their work of destroying the
woods about here but it rains very hard, and I do
not think we shall go out the axmen have made
great havock among the trees about here one man
offered 5,000 dollars if they would stop cutting down
the woods he is a southern simpathizer and they
do not pay any attention to him we are enjoying
ourselves first rate the health of the regt is very good.
thoes thatar have been sick are gaining in health and
spirits. There will be stiring news on this side of the
Potomac soon I think according to appearances before
a great while the report is tha tthe army is preparing to
make a movement somewhare but I do not know
where it will be and there is but a few that does

[to be continued on August 30]

MSS 12916

1861 August 29

[from the diary of Eugene M. Cox, Albemarel Border Guards and 46th Virginia Infantry]

8 A.M. Rained all night and still it rains--9 P.M. the sun came out beautifully this evening and gave us earnest of fair weather, but as night came on clouds obscure the sky again, betokening more rain and at this hour we are threatened with a heavy story--9 1/2--Taps and all lights to out.

MSS 38-211

Sunday, August 28, 2011

1861 August 28

[from the diary of Wesley B. Hammond of Co. E, 42nd Virginia Infantry, the Dixie Greys]

Day rainy – no drill to day
read 7 chapters in bible
Commenced reading Flavel’s
Fountain of Life. Prayer
Meeting at nigh –
1 [number lined through] Yankee [‘s’ lined through] captured by our
men to day and one killed.

John Flavel, 1627-1691, an English Presbyterian clergyman and author. Fountain of Life Opened Up is a collection of 42 of his sermons, most of which focus on the life, work, and importance of Christ.

MSS 5526

1861 August 28

[from the diary of Harrison B. Jones of the 33rd Virginia Infantry]

we marched nearly
down to farfax Court
house to day. we stoped
about two hours. and
then had orders to face
about and march back
to camp. there being
no need of us. it rained
this evening again

MSS 14169

1861 August 28

[from the diary of Eugene M. Cox of the Albemarle Guard and 46th Virginia Infantry]

Raining this morning, not hard, but gentle and steady--9 1/2 P.M. Continued to rain all day--nothing of importance done--taps, lights out and to bed---

MSS 38-211

[1861] Aug[ust] 28 [Camp of the fifth M[ain]e Regt

[letter of Hiram Cash continues]

nothing of importance took place today I
with four others of our company went to the fort
to work there was 40 men out of our regt up there and
as many New York boys with us we have got the job
about compleated we have been making a place to
protect the men in case of battle there is a report today
of the advance of a large body of our troops twords
Manassas Juncktion well supplied with artillery and cavelry
we have been looking for a battle to take place here every
day of late but it does not like like it now.

[to be continued]

Hiram D. Cash, Co. K, 5th Maine

MSS 12916

1861 August 28 Head Qrs 8 miles from Alexandria

Dear Father

I received our letter of
the 27th this Afternoon and was very
glad to hear from you. You received mine
of the 20th. I wrote one to you the 18th
have you received it. I have not seen
anything of Walter Clute about hear
nor heard anything of him. There
are only four in our tent Chris
Peters, John Pollard, gill Harman &
myself. We do not have to cook our
own victuals, there is a cooks appointed
out of our company to take turns. You
speak about my good supper that
I had, I bought it of the peddlers
around the camp, The troops fare
a little better now than they did
before. We have moved our Camp
about three miles from Alexandria

[page 2]
yesterday the 27th Our whole Brigade
is here now, we can see the Rebels
from the cupalo of an Accademy
which the Officers use as there quarters
from the Maine Reg. We have got a
very good camping ground here
now but the water is scarce. The Rebels
and our pickets have been fighting
all day having drove them ^'ours' back once
or twice but ^'ours' was reinforced and sent
the rebels a flying capturing 6 pieces
of canon the fighting was near Chain
Bridge. We expect a battle before long
Our Regiment is ready for them I
hop if we have a fight it will be
the last one and I go through it all
sound. Our Reg is in the 5th Brigade
I dont know what division Comanded
by Brig Gen. Franklin. We can hear
the roar of canon here very plain
but I dont know wheter it is ours
or not We are the fartherest Reg. out
towards the enemy. Col Jackson has

[page 3]
gone home on account of his health for
seven days, he went sunday. Co. D. has
been on picket to day they were fired
on by the rebels, they throwed shell at
them but it was to high it went over
there heads none of the camp were
wounded. Two more comps go out to night
Coss. H. & C. I wrote to Doct. Van Dycke to
day I gave him an account of myself
I guess he will be pleased to hear from
me did you ask Uncle add wether he
received my letter or not I wrote you
about it in my last letter. I received
a letter from Jim to day and was
much pleased with it. I will see that
the box is all right when it comes. I
will go down the last of this week
and get it at Alexandria if comes
right through. How did you like
those Photographs that I sent you.
You did not say much about them
in your letter what did the folks say
about them Geo. Hoffman had his
taken (Aunt Lauries) Geo. You can see

[page 4]
me in his as I set aside of his tent
Ask Aunt Laurie to let you see it
I sent you some papers, did you
receive them if so let me know.
Why dont you send me more paper
than you do so I can see the news
I dont know of anyting more to write
of at present. Give my love to Herriott
Ann and Dunck and all the rest of the
folks Col Young sends his best
respect to you Tell Rodneys Father he
sends his love to him and all the
folks Direct your letters to Washington D. C.
it has been a dull rainy day.
Write soon tell George Ann to write
to me soon as the candle is most burned
up I will close with a Good Bye
From you Aff Son
A D Barhydt

Co E 18th Reg

Andrew D. Barhydt 18th New York Infantry

MSS 8979-l

1861 August 28 Germantown Fairfax Ct Va

My Dear Wife

I recieved your very welcome letter by W. D.
Wilkes yesterday, and was very happy to hear of your welfare, I also
recieved the socks and shirt &c all right, you ought to see me with
my hat trimmed off with the palmettos you sent me, I have the
brim of it looped up on the left side with the star, and the cockade
on the front, I could not decide which of the two was the
prettiest and so put them both on, I have also a nice black
Feather which Dugan found on the Battlefield and gave to me
every body wants the palmettoes from me they all say they are the
prettiest ones they ever saw, I wrote you some days ago aabout the
new uniforms for myself and company let me know as soon as
possible whether you think there can be enough of jeans got for
it or not, Mr. Breazeale is busy now taking the measures of
all the men and will start home this week, he will cut my
suit for you and make the coat My Drawrs were very hard
up some time ago, but the day after the Battle I found a large box in one
of the yankee waggons filled with fine grey woollen drawers
and home knit woollen socks, so I helped myself to two pairs
of each so I am very well of for them at present, they were all new
and never had been unpacked the men got the balance of them
I told Sloman to tell you what kind of shirts I wanted if you
cant get the flannel at home, I will tell Breazele to get some

[page 2]
of the right sort at Richmond and bring it to you I think I have
socks enough to do me all winter, make me some kind of a warm
cap to sleep in, in the cold weather, should I think of anything
else before Breazeale starts I will write by him.

Their is nothing new in camp today except that A part
of Genl. Longstreets Brigade had a skirmish with some
of the enemy yesterday in the neighbourhood of Falls
church, killing two of them wounding five and taking
ten prisoners, when they retreated towards Alexandria,
there was two killed on our side, our Brigade were ordered
to hold themselves in readiness but did not march our
services not being required, we have very disagreeable weather
here at present it rains nearly all the time and our camp
is getting very mudy and comfortless but the men who
are here are all in fine spirits, and anxious to give the
yankees another sound thrashing and get back home
I think if we could do that we would all get home pretty soon,
The health of our Regiment dont improve much, but I dont
think it gets any worse, I dont hear of many dangerous
cases, all that I can hear from of my company are improving
and expect to be at their posts soon, William is in good
health and stands it finely, he got his box all safe
the wine was a most acceptable present and we shall keep
it in case of sickness, it is very much needed here at present
as soon as you kill any Beeff I want ou to dry me some
and send it by some one who is coming out, it would be a
fine thing to cary when we are on the march and cant
get our provisions cooked, and you know I am very fond

[page 3]
of it anyhow, their is a great many little nick nacks
that I sometimes want but I have to console myself that I
fare as well as my fellow soldiers and as without them, it will
teach us all to appreciate the comforts of home when we get
back, and think more of our wives and firesides,

I am so happy to hear that our dear little Maggie is getting so
smart, how I do long to get back to you both and assist you
in teaching her her little lessons, I often look at your likenesses
till I fancy that you are both beside me, I dreamed last
night that you were here that I saw you standing with her
in your arms on a high Piazia in front of a House and as I
walked up the street you pointed me out to her and she stretched
out er little arms, and called me so sweet, that it woke me
up, only to be disappointed, by finding it all a dream, I
do hope this war will soon come to a close and let us all back
to the loved ones at home,

I wrote Jink a few days ago which I hope he has recieved
tell him to write me soon, and give me all the news, I have a
pretty good supply of paper and envelopes yet which I got
from the yankee plunder but it is pretty scarce in the camp
Give my kindest Regards to all of our friends and
neighbours, kiss our little angel, for me and reserve my
kindest love for yourself, and believe me your
ever Devoted Husband,

William sends his love to you all

William Anderson, 4th Regiment South Carolina Volunteers (Palmetto Sharpshooters)

MSS 10366

Saturday, August 27, 2011

1861 August 27

[from the diary of Harrison B. Jones, 4th sergeant, Co. H, 33rd Virginia Infantry]

to day was quiet nothing
of much moment occurred
our pickets took a couple
of prisoners and
carried them to the Juncktion.
it rained considerably
this evening

MSS 14169

1861 Aug[us]t 27 Green County, Ala[bama]

Genl. J. H. Cocke

My Dear Sir

I left home three weeks since
with the expectation of paying you a short
visit in either going or coming from the
army in Virginia, but was subjected to
delays and through the carelesness of a porter
in changing baggage at Charlotte my Trunk
was changed for another and when I arrived in
Richmond found that I had another
mans Trunk I remained there four days
hoping that it might be found and
finally concluded to go on to Manassas
after supplying myself with a few articles
of clothing to meet pressing demands. the
mishap of the loss of my Trunk pressed
on me heavily for it it was many things
sent by relations to the young men that
went from this neighbourhood also letters
for them and I could not relieve myself
from the disappointment, I was also quite
unwell with cold and the continued
rainy weather all the time I was in
camp made it very unpleasant to me
I did not reach the encampment of
the 5th Ala. Regt but stoped at the 11th near

[page 2]
Bristoe; commanded Moon of
Greensboro, Ala--and sent for Joseph to come
and see me. my time was thus spent in
delays and disappointments, untill I was
compelled to return to Richmond to meet
Mr Alfred Hatch, as previously agreed upon
to return home. I was very much disappoin
-ted in having to give up my trip to
see you and the country in which you
live but will hope yet to do so before we
are seperated in this our earthy pilgrimige.

I have been very much depressed
in consequence of Joseph's exposure in the army
he is far from a robust man and I fear that
he cannot stand the winter in the climate
the army now occupies, he has a young
and somewhat helpless family. and I am
fearful on his account. your very acceptable
letter o f the 15th came to hand the day after I
got home and it has given my Wife and
Fanny great comfort to know that there is a
friend near their Dear ones. It is the impress
-ion of many persons with whom I have
conversed in coming from Va. that Lincolns
government will be enabled to raise the means
and men to prosecute this unrighteous war
against us, and our only hope is to fight
it out--if this be their determination we may [have]

[page 3]
many trubles before us, but relying on the
Supreme Governor of the universe I have faith
to believe that we finally will succeed--but we
must expect many valuable lives as the sacrifice
God is Great and in his hands we must
put our trust . It I think is the prevailing
feeling of our people; in our Ranks are
many truly pious people and I find some
preachers. I was introduced to one while in
camp a soldier in the ranks whose face bore
the impress of a soldier of the cross. these are
strange times and there are some things
hard to be understood--It has been raining
for the last three weeks and our cotton
crop will be cut off very much. some say
one half at the time I left here the 7th Aug.
I never saw a better prospect for a large
crop of cotton and also of corn the corn
was made but I am told that a great
portion will damage with the continuous
rain I saw Smith Powel yesterday he reports
your people are well says that his uncle
was down about the time I left home and
expects him again next week

Jack Cocke's wife died at his
Fathers during my absence from home had
been sick a long time- My family are all
well and join me in kind Regards

B[ayard?] Borden

[page 4]
N.B. On my return home retracing my steps
as I went on I found my Trunk at
Charlotte N.C. in the rail Road office
in rechecking at that Point. the Porter
had taken another Trunk so much like
mine that I did not discover the mistake
until I had reached Richmond and
went to a room to change my clothes
I saw at Richmond your son Charles
and intended to visit his encampment
but was quite too much indisposed the
day I had set apart for that purpose

yours truly
B. Borden

Borden's son Joseph Borden, 1828-1913, was at the time a sergeant in the 5th Alabama. As his father notes he was not healthy and had a large family of eight children. He was wounded in 1862 but returned to action in 1863, and then resigned a few months later suffering from severe rheumatism.

MSS 640

1861 August 27

[from the diary of Wesley Hammond]

Worked a road in the morning –
in evening went with Capt Deyer
-le and bro. Engle for black-
berries. read four chapters
in bible – day beatiful.[sic]

Wesley A. Hammond, Co. E, 42nd Virginia (Dixie Greys)

Mss 5526

1861 August 27 Canp of the fifth M[ain]e Regt

Respected parents and friends

I have just returned from the
outposts of our lines up where our company has been on picket
duty for 24 hours past we had a grand good time we were
posted about five miles from camp we were posted near a
house which has been deserted by the owner and we went to
the house and took up our head quarters there he was I should
think a very rich man he is a decendant of one of the first settlers
of the State he left behind a great deal of furnature of different
kinds and a very large library composed of all sorts of good
books beds and bedding and a great many things to numerous
to mention he was a doctor he left a large number medical
books and a great many bottles of medicine and papers of
all kinds that doctors use if I could have some of them at
home I should like it I brought some of them to the the
camp and I guess every man brought in something old
books 200 years old one book something like a bible 200 years
old all kinds of books both ancient and modern if I could
make an assortment and get them home I should feel rich
it is strange to me that he schould leave so much behind,
the N.Y. boys got a pianno worth 400 or 500 dollars they got
three horse lods of things such as they wanted, I took a
blank boot this is one of the leaves that come out of
it I have got writing paper enough now to last me a great
while to write on We did not see any rebels to interfere with
us and we returned safe and in good order

[letter of Hiram Cash will continue on August 28]

Hiram Cash, Private, Co. K, 5th Maine

MSS 12916

1861 August 27

Muster roll from the 1st West Virginia Foot Volunteers, Thomas C. Parks Captain

MUSTER ROLL OF Captain______Company, in the ____Regiment, (_____Brigade) of ______Volunteers commanded by Colonel_____________called into the service of the United States by __________ from the _____day of______186_, (date of muster) for the term of ______________ unless sooner discharged.

[The following men were listed as enrolled by Thomas C. Parks on May 16, 1861. All were from Wheeling, Va. and enlisted for three months. The company was organized at Wellsburg, Va.]


Park, Thomas C. Capt. 36
Melvin, Oscar F. 1st Lieut 23
Melvin, Enas Ensign 22
Lewis, James A 1st Sergt 30
Plattesburg, John W. Sergt 30
Amick, George H Sergt 29
Reeves, Albert W. Sergt 23
Jackson, James Corpl 44
Cale, Chester B. Corpl 21
Caney, James M. Corpl 21
Nichols, James C Corpl 21
Nichols, Edward Drummer 28
Nichols, Robert Fifer 31
Archy, John C. Private 21
Armstrong, William S. Private 25
Anderson, Martin Private 20
Brewer, George Private 19
Brownlee, Martin Private 20
Brownlee, William Private 27
Barnes, Shepley Private 21
Blankinsass, George Private 22
Briggs, John A Private 22
Burchard, David T Private 21
Bigger, Wilson Private 19
Billingsley, William A. Private 26
Ball, Richard Private 19
Creiason, William B. Private 38
Clemson, John M Private 21
Cosbly, Andrew Private 20
Collins, John H Private 21
Cowens, John Private 30
Campbell, James Private 29
Davis, Alfred Private 23
Davis, Charles H. Private 23
Dayton, William Private 28
Dean, John Private 28
Everhart, Frederic E Private 20
Everitt, John Private 42
Frazier, George A Private 18
Frank, George Private 23
Foster, Joseph Private 20
Foster, Robert Private 22
Fleming, Henry H Private 21
Good, Thomas C Private 33
Goudy, William A Private 20
Gilchrist, John B Private 24
Howard, William W Private 30
Harris, Washington W Private 23
McGilton,William Private 21
Kimberland, Henry C Private 19
Kimberland, Cornelius H Private 26
Krider, Theodore Private 26
Leazear, James Private 21
Miller, John Private 21
Melvin, William H Private 18
Martin, William J Private 36
McGrew, Anderson Private 19
MCoy, Samuel Private 20

[page 2]
Mercer, Lewis A Private 19
Mercer, Alfred T Private 18
Nangle, Samuel C Private 21
Noland, Samuel D Private 19
Pillings, Charles Jr Private 22
Palmer, John A J Private 29
Petit, Jeremiah Private 21
Romesh[?] Charles Private 20
Silender, Lewis Private 19
Silender, William Private 24
Shearer, Andrew Private 23
Shriner, William L Private 20
Sprager, Edward Private 18
Smith, William H H Private 29
Sample, Richard P Private 20
Slaugherty, Patrick Private 19
White, William Private 21
White, George M Private 21
Letizcus, Richard Private 26

I CERTIFY, ON HONOR, That this Muster Roll exhibits the true state of Captain
Thomas C. Park's Company of the first for the period herein
mentioned; that each man answers to his own proer name in person; and
that the remarks set opposite the name of each officer and soldier are accurate\and just.

Thos C Park
Capt. 1st Regt. Va. foot vols

Commanding the Company

DATE: May 16/61
STATION: Wheeling, Va
Regt.Va. foot volunteers

I CERTIFY, On HONOR, that I have carefully examined the men whos names
are borne on this Roll, their horses, and equipments, and have accepted them
into the service of the United States for the term of Three
from this
Sixteenth day of May 1861

James Oake
Maj 2nd Regt. U. S. Cavlry

Mustering Officer

DATE: May 16/61

STATION: Wheeling Va

I CERTIFY, ON HONOR, That I have at Wheeling,
on this 27th
day of August, 1861, carefully examined this Roll, and, as far as practicable, caused
the allowances, stoppages, and remarks to be justly and properly stated; and mustered the company for
discharge; and it is hereby honorably discharaed from the service of the United States.

A three month regiment was typical of the early days of the war when both sides believed the conflict would be of short duration and over in a matter of weeks.

MSS 9399

1861 August 27

[From the diary of Eugene M. Cox]

Active preparations are being made at this encampment for defensive operations and an attack is expected here very soon--It is reported and confirmed that Genl. Floyd had a battle yesterday with Col. Tyler's forces completely routing them and scattering the whole force, killing and taking a large number--The battle was fought on rich Creek, in the neighborhood (I believe) of Summerville--Nothing more of importance transpired to-day--91/2. Taps--lights out and to bed--

Eugene M. Cox, 1833-1855, Private in Albemarle Border and later in Cos. D & I 46th Virginia

MSS 38-221

Friday, August 26, 2011

1861 August 26 Sycolin, Va.

               Sycolin, Aug: 26th 1861.
                 My dear girls,
                                         After leaving you
Thursday morning with a sad heart,
I was soon seated on the cars rolling
away for my distant field of work.
It had not been long before I heard
a scream from a young lady seated in
my rear, after which with convulsive
sobs she said “Oh my brother is dead”!
I ascertained from the conductor that
she was alone & from one of the southern
states going to see her brother sick at
S Moore’s Alb:  upon enquiring of him
about the family, he told her they had
carried up the day before the corpse of
a young man from that place, when
she gave the scream – For one hour
she cried as if her her [sic] heart would
break, after which she reached her
destination.  Poor girl I wept freely

[page 2]
for her. Oh! who can tell the sorrows
that must ring the hearts of thousands
on account of this war!  It is thought
that there are over ten thousand of our
soldiers sick in the Armies of Manassas
I reached my destination that night, and
next morning mounting Billy made for
my appointment the Grove.  Reached
Helmswood Friday night and had satur-
day to prepare my sermons for Sunday
While I write the cannon are booming
on the Potomac a few miles the other
side of Lees burg.  They were firing yester-
day and one of our men from Richmond
was killed, and some wounded so I hear
Don’t know how many of the enemy
are killed.  The enemy in small squads
have been coming over and our men
have moved to the rises to stop it.
Well my children, I reckon er’e you
receive this you will be with Cousin
Lizzie and at work among y’r books
I wanted to say more to you, but

[page 3]
it did not seem to come to my mind
sad as I felt.  But if you both can
realize this great anxiety that I feel for
y’r welfare, you will try to accomplish all
you can in the way of studying, as well
demean y’rselves with strict propriety in
every thing.  Remember my dear Bettie
what I told you about – “notions”: I could
say no more, yet I think you understood
me.  Be particular about y’r clothes, and
attend to Cousin Lizzie’s directions about
rules of deportment &C  Above all my
child don’t forget y’r prayers.  Oh! I
do want you to be an exemplary Christian
[-]. You must not fail to pray because
you don’t feel like it.  That is the very
time you ought to pray & pray until you
do feel like it.  May God bless my child
and help her by his Spirit & cause her
heart to love the blessed Savior! – My dear
[-] try to keep [-] temper, and re-
member the last words of y’r dear mother
as she laid her thin hands on both y’r

[page 4]
and committed you to God’s care.  Oh:
my child! Are you not going to try & meet
her in heaven?  You cannot begin the
preparation too soon.  Y’r heart is now
young & tender, and it will be easy to
give it to God now while if you wait
it will be growing harder & colder until
all inclination will be gone – Say y’r prayers
regularly & read y’r bible, and remember
y’r father when you both pray.  The times
are ominous of great events and we
will need all this religion we can get
Pray for you’r country, and for the sick
Soldiers at Manassas   they are burying them
every day.  My heart bleeds when I think
of the suffering – Write as soon as you
can after getting this, and direct to
Upper ville – After that to Hamilton
Give my love to Cousins J & L & children
& Uncle Wm & family –
                                Y’r father
                                     R.W. Watts.

Robert W. Watts,  1825-1910, Methodist minister who served several churches in central Virginia.

[transcription by Mary Roy Dawson Edwards]

MSS 809                      

1861 August 26

[from the diary of Wesley Hammond]

Today, remarkably pretty.
Received the news that Gen.
Johnson gained a victory
over the Northern forces
in Loudoun Co. took 1700
prisoners, of the enemy.
England acknowledged
the Independence of the
Southern republic – Also
some prospect for peace.
Nothing took place in camp
of interest.

Confederate soldier in the Dixie Greys, Co. E of the 42nd Virginia

There was a Confederate victory on August 26 at Kessler's Cross Lanes in Nicholas County West Virginia. General John Floyd, not Johnson, was the Confederate commander.
England did not acknowledge the independence of the Confederacy on this or any other date (though on another diplomatic front on August 26 King Kamehameha IV did proclaim the neutrality of the Hawaiian Islands)

MSS 5526

1861 August 26

[from the diary of Eugene M. Cox]

Slept well last night--at roll call the full strength of our company was only 19--thus the Corp has from time to time gone on the sick list until it has dwindled down to a mere squad--and many of those on the duty list unable to stand a long march and carry knap-sacs--At 8 A.M. the regiment formed promptly and stood in readiness to march--the wagons moved on before--they had not gotten out of camp bounds when they were ordered to turn back and our orders were countermanded and were dismissed and allowed to pick tents and shelters--It is pretty well understood that we were to have moved in the direction of Summerville, but from some news from Genl. Floyd this change is made--8 o'clock P.M. To the great satisfaction of us all we have this evening gotten 8 nice tents from the department--we can now do much better--have them all pitched and are comfortably fixed--We have prepared our "pay roll" to-day and hope to be paid off in a short time--91/2 P.M. Taps--lights out and to sleep.

Eugene Montraville Cox, 1833-1885, Albemarle Border Guards later Private, Co. D., 46th Virginia Infantry

MSS 38-221

1861 August 26 Camp Vernon

Respected parents and friends

I again seat
myself to write the news I have nothing very
important to write I thought as it was my
birth day I would try and write you wanted
in your last letter to know if needed any thing
I believe I do not need any thing that you can
send me unless you could send me some flag
root in a letter I lost mine it was in my
knapsack I had a small piece in my pocket
and I have not used it all yet we had
one shirt coming to our tents crew and we
drew lots for it and I drew it so I have
two now our new clothes have come and we
shall have them given out in a few days
we are still at work on the fort and we have
begun to cut the woods down six men goes
every day into the woods and of our company
there is about two hundred in the whole
that goes into the woods besides the guard

[page 2]
our sick ones are getting better Keen has
got so to walk out a little but he loos as
though he could not live long but he may
get well again the rest of the sick belonging
to this company are doing nicely I think
that two or three will get discharged as they
are not fit for duty. Tell Washington he
had better not enlist to come out here if he
wants to ever so much for t his is a bad
climate for any one with a caugh like him
we have warm days and very cold nights
when it rains here it comes down steady and
hard, the thunder showers are very heavy the
natives here say that the sickliest part of
the season is past if we are carefull and not
get the fever and ague they say the northern
people are apt to have it about here. Capt Tobie
returned here last Thursday to take command
of his company again and we was very
glad to see him again but I do not think
he will be able to stand the climate his
health is not very good, Lieut Bucknam
is now sick he has not been on duty for two

[page 3]
or three days they say t his morning he is
very sick I do not know what is the
matter with him. I should not wonder if
we had reengagements with the rebels before
a great while one brigade composed of five regts
has marched twords the reels encampment
this morning I suppose with the intention
to attack them we shall know in a few
days our brigade has passed in review before Gen
McLellan I think he is noble and brave man
and he will meet with success I have no
kind of doubt the army place full confidence
in his skill and judgment. I think
befor many days we shall have plenty
of news and then there will be
something to write

Yours in hast
Hiram M. Cash

Private Co K 5th Maine

William A. Tobie, Captain Co. K, 5th Maine
Hamlin T. Bucknam, 1st Lieutenant and later Captain Co. K. 5th Maine
MSS 12916

Thursday, August 25, 2011

1861 August 25 Camp at Greenbrier River

Dear Father

We are still encamped here without
the prospect of moving for some time, as it is impossible
for us to advance, on account of the strength of the
position of the enemy on Cheat Mountain, until
Gen. Lee defeats them near Huttonsville and turns
their position, And it is said the enemy are
as strong or stronger than we are, and well
entrenched in the valley in front of Gen Lee, I hear
he intends to advance as soon as the roads are dry
enough for the transportation of bagage and for
artilery, We have had now two dry days, and if
this weather continues we may expect orders to
move forward in a few days. There is some talk
of forming a regiment for Col. Stark, of our two
companies, four companies of Col. Heck's regiment
which escaped from Rich Mountain, and two other
companies, To which are to be joined Shoemakers
battery and a company of cavalry, In that case
we will be sent over to Gen. Lee's column and
will no doubt be in any battle that may be

[page 2]
expected soon, Our company are in a very bad
condition, and few others here are any better off,
We have only forty three men present, and of them
there are only twenty five for duty, the rest being
sick with measles and diaraeha, Eighteen were left
in Monterery and have since been sent back to Staunton
all the sick who are here, If wo we will have left
only about thirty men in the company, We all
have plenty of clothing and other necessaries except
over coats, of which there are only sixteen in the
company, The government promises to send us a
supply of overcoats very soon, but they are always
too late in every thing, and the Quartermaster and
subsistance departments are very badly managed,
for instance every regiment has to send back twenty
four miles to Monterey for its provisions.
Tom left here this morning on leave of absence
for home by Staunton, he has been very sick for
a week with intermittent fever and diareaha, and
had become so unwell that the Doctor and I
insisted on his going home, He thought himelf
better this morning but said he had a slight
hemorage, there being some colouring of blood in
his spittle, It was for this reason, that I insisted

[page 3]
on his going home, as this climate is particularly
unfavourable to a diseased condition of the Lungs
He will get to Staunton, Tuesday evening if he is not
obliged to stop on the way from fatigue, as he is
very weak. We procured an ambulance, in which
he is able to recline, as on a bed.

The men who have returned to Halifax on furlow
from the hospital are not under any command, and
I am not responsible to the state for them. I have
received no notice that they are not in the
hospital from the authorities, and therefore to me
they are still there, Those who sent them home
must account to the state for them, It is against
the rules of the service for any officer even the general
to grant a furlow without the recommendation of
both the surgeon and captain commanding the
company, I received yesterday a letter from
Maria, who is now at the home of her uncle Mr
Robert E. Kott in Fauquier she is just recovering
from another convulsion and severe attack of head-
ache, I think, produced by he[r] ride on the cars
from Richmond, We are to have a pay master
here soon I have heard to pay the men up to
the 1st of July, If the government is not more prompt
in paying their army, They will be in danger of

[page 4]
losing it very soon, It is well enough to talk
of patriotism, but men won't fight without pay,
particularly when they see the government paying
promptly themselves and their favorites above them

I am very well, and find this rough life agrees
with me, But Tom can not stand it, and I
think he ought to resign rather than come here
again, The climate as winter approaches will
certainly give him consumption, and one is always
subject to diareaha in camp. With love to
Eliza and Charlie

Your affectionate Son
Wm. B. Bruce

[Paper folded to envelope size and following note on back]
Thomas Bruce of
Tarover ill, had to
leave camp at Greenbrier
River in ambulance
Died Sep 19 - 1861 at

William Ballard Bruce was a captain of Company K in the 20th Virginia Infantry

refers to Lt. Col. Jonathan M. Heck of the 25th Virginia,and possibly to Lt. Col. william Edwin Starke, 1814-1862, of the 53rd Virginia, who was later killeld at Antietam.

MSS 2692

1861 August 25

[from the diary of Eugene M. Cox of the Border Guard, Wise's Legion]


Another beautiful Sabbath morning has
dawned upon us and with it come the recollection of our
once happy homes and of all the sweet enjoyments of peace.
Father and brother long to join the sweet communion of
their family circles--Little do those at home know of the
hardships of a soldiers life--actual combat is nothing to
be compared with the other duties, incident to camp life,
such as hunger, thirst, cold, heat and long and toilsome
marches and counter marches--We are not long allowed to
rest on this Holy Day for we have just received orders to
cook up three days' provisions and pack the same in our
havre sacs and be ready to march at any moment--we know
nothing of our destination--12 o'clock noon--News comes
that an engagement has commenced near "Hawks Nest" -- &
we are ordered to form and march toward the scene of
battle--the battalion is in readiness in a few minutes and
we are immediately put in motion--6 o'clock P.M. We were
(1st regiment Col. Richardson's) marched beyond the "Gap"
a short distance and halted at a point near which were
two cannons planted which we were to support--here we re
mained waiting for orders--the two other regiments went
on in the direction of the fight--As it turned out it was an
attack of the enemy in ambush upon our cavalry under Col.
Davis scouting in that direction --The surprise was complete
doing our cavalry considerable damage--wounding a considerable
number, killing [blank space]
The enemy having disappeared behind their fortification about
"Hawk's Nest" & we seeing no chance to get an engagement,
our whole Brigade moved back to quarters--This little affair
frustrated for the time, our design of moving in another
direction, for which we had made preparations--7 P.M. Have
orders to be in readiness to march at 8 o'clock tomorrow
morning--9 P.M. All retired to rest---

Eugene M. Cox, Private, 46th Virgnia Infantry.

A reference to the skirmish at Piggots Mill in West Virignia

Col. John Harvie Richardson, 1828-1900, was a pre-war Virignia milita officer and author of an infantry manual. After the war was a Richmond city official and operator of a street car line.

MSS 38-221

1861 August 25 Centerville [Virginia]

My dearest Wife:

My heart was made glad last evening by your
letter which came wit two others from home dated the 20th & 22nd.
I am glad you continue well my dearest and I look upon it as one
of the many blessings our Good Lord heaps upon us at tall times and
especially now when there is so much sickness & suffering all around.
I have some good news for you. Uncle Philip has some business
to be transacted in Richmond and some papers & other things to be
went home & he is going to send me--So you may look out for me
some day this week or the first of the next. I wish to go home
also before I return & shall expect you to go up with me if possible
Or we may stop at Bremo as sister & mother somewhat ex-
pect to pay a visit there soon. How happy I am dear Pink
that I will see you so soon. Then you wont toss about so much
on your sleepless bed--I shall probably not write again before I
see you.

We had an alarm here evening before last, learning that the enemy
was making quite a formidable demonstration near our outer line--
The whole Brigade started off about sundown & marched nearly
six miles in the direction of Fairfax C.H. when an aid of Genl Jackson's
met our staff telling us it was a false alarm & then all the
poor fellows had to march back to quarters in the night. I certain
-ly congratulated myself then on being on horseback. Uncle P. said
he was more fatigued than he was the day of the battle.
If the enemy moves at all in this direction I do not believe he
will be ready in two weeks more, And I strongly suspect he will

[page 2]
not come at all, but will probably attack some weaker point.
I have a great deal to tell you about which I cannot put
on paper now, and as I may reach you as soon as this
will close now. I am acting as Provost Marshall of this
post and as fast as I begin a sentence some one comes
in for a pass and all my ideas are scattered to the winds.
Writing passes for white people is rather a novel idea at least to the
darkey population.

I thought at one time of surprising you with my little visit
but was afraid of the effects of it. I hope this may reach you
before I come--Good bye my precious my loved wife
take good care of yourself & always love as you do now
Your devoted Husband
P[hilip] B[arraud] C[abell]

My love to Alex. & Jennie & the chldren. Try and be ready to go
up wit me when I come as I shall not remain with your father
longer than I am obliged to

Philip Barraud Cabell, 1836-1904, nephew of General Philip St. George Cocke (to whom he refers in the letter) and grandson of University of Virginia founder General John Harwell Cocke, was one of the few antebellum students at the University of Virginia to obtain a master's degree. After the war he was a professor at Urbana University in Ohio, and later a minister of a Swedenborgian church in Wilmington Delaware. His wife Julia Calvert Bolling Cabell known as "Pinkie", had been a popular Virginia belle before her marriage six months previously.

MSS 38-111

1861 August 25


My Brother John Lee Andrews of Houston Texas
requests me to say to the people of Va, that he would
like to exchange lands in Texas for Negros,
Or he wants [to] join any any one who would like to
send there Negros to Texas, in farming there, from
one to ten years, he John Lee Andrews furnishing
the land and they the labour, and divide the
net profits on just and equitable proportions,
he will furnish from 50 to 100,000 Acres, or any
quantity that may be needed for the aforesaid
purposes, this 25th day of August 1861

Samuel Andrews

probably the text for a handbill or newspaper advertisement

MSS 11909

1861 August 25 Eufaula, Alabama

Dear Dent
Your favor of the 22nd Inst
by Capt Baker enclosing thirty $30 Dollars
for J. A. Sylvester Selma Ala for
a Coat purchased of him is at
hand – I notice what you say about
Bullock and regret to be compelled to
state that his manner of proceedure in
this matter furnishes me abundant
cause to complain – This however would
not be the case if I was urging him
to pay the amount – or did I ever as much
as expect him to pay all of it next January
(which I am well aware will not be done) – but
when I am simply asking him to give his notes
for,, accts,, that have been standing from one
to two years at the same time being in
possession of the very these a/cs,, [accounts] and they receipted
it certainly is a source of great annoyance
to me – I would not care any thing about
it if the Amount was small – but twelve
or fourteen Hundred dollars being the Amt,,

[page 2]
without Note and the a/cs Receipted and
in his possession is pretty severe.
I cannot see for my life why he
will not give his note for it was
his own proposition to fix it the way
I have – If you cannot get him to
sign the notes send me the memoran-
dum back and I will make it convenient
to suit [or “sue” (word is smeared)] him if he ever comes home.
I dislike very much for a man to
treat me as he has done in this
case. I notice in the Columbus Sun
some Correspondent writing from
Pensacoli says one Mr Roburson from
the 10th Mississippi Reg an editor when
at home is to be shot next Friday
for sleeping at his post – this
I am powerfully ^ ‘sorry’ to hear of – also
another one from his Youthfulness and
inexperience will be punished sixty days
and then ^ ‘be’ Drummed out of Camp
Pretty bad treatment for just taking
a short nap of sleep –
Yours truly
W. H. Locke

William H. Locke Confederate soldier in John Hardy's "Eufala Minute Men" and Captain George A. Robert's Co. C., Fourth Battalion, Alabama Cavalry; before and after the war a dry goods merchant in Eufaula, Alabama.

MSS 13485

1861 August 25 Camp Near Germantown

My Dear Wife
Having an opportunity of
sending a letter I propose to write a few
lines that you may know of our progress.
Your letter of the 12 inst came to hand
on the 23rd and although I found extreme
pleasure in reading it, yet it had been
on the road such a time that I hard-
-ly realized that I had heard from
the loved ones. Many sad scenes have
occurred since I last wrote you. ( 17th inst)
A very melancholy death occurred in our
Company since that time. I refer to
Charly Robinson’s brother. His body has
been sent home, and will probably
reach Winnsboro [N.C.] Tuesday. He was a
very warm friend of mine, and I
with the whole Company deeply regret to
chronicle the event. It will be a very
severe blow upon his parents as they

will only have heard of his sickness. There
are many deaths occurring in the Regiment
and at this time some Companies number
-ing 80 men ^ ‘before we left home’ can scarcely parade 25 effective
men. The measles and Typhoid fever seem
to be the prevailing diseases. Dan Smith is
still quite low and little or no hopes are
entertained of his recovery. Since I last
wrote you, (last Friday) our Genl received
orders to hold his Command in readiness
to march at a moments warning- This
order was issued to each of the regiments
and at 3 0Clock on Friday the long roll
was beaten, and the Brigade consisting of
four Regiments moved forward in the direc-
tion of Fall’s Church some eight miles
distant, where we expected to encounter
the enemy in considerable force. When
about half way we were ordered to
the right about as the enemy had fallen
back in the direction of Arlington Heights.
Our force moving forward that afternoon
and right from different points – but
centering at one point was said to
be 50.000 men. Numbers of Brigades

were behind and to the right and left of us
and one or two in front which we were
to support in the event of an attack.
We are still under the same orders to hold
ourselves in readiness to move forward.
The night of our return we reached our Camp
at 12 Oclock. From the signs of the times some-
thing very decisive may take place in the course
of the next month. I do not feel so sanguine
about peace as I did some time ago, yet there
is a change taking place throughout the North
which will speak out sooner or later. I very
much fear that many severe engagements
will yet take place before this change will
make itself prominent.
I regret sorely that
I have not got your likeness and the children’s.
It would be a source of endless joy to
have them, for I can scarcely tell in my
mind how you and the little jewels look.
If an opportunity should occur do not
fail to have them taken and sent to me.
Wm Creight has not yet reached here.
We understand he left home last Monday.
I expect a letter and some other tricks by
him. I want you to get me some of the

heavy brown jeans and make me [-] pr of
drawers. Get the thickest to be had. Tell Will
to write me soon. As the young man
who is to carry this is about to leave I must
close. Mr McCants is quite hearty together
with Mr. Glenon. The boys generally are all
well. Johnny wrote to recently. Give much love
to all friends, and accept the pure affection
of your aff husband
J.M. Phinney
This is written very hastily you must
Excuse its appearance

I will probably write again during
the week write soon

James M. Phinney, 1833-1862 Confederate officer from Winnsboro, S. C., in the Boyce Guards militia and the 6th Infantry Regiment; killed in action at Fair Oaks.

MSS 12661

1861 August 25 Hd-qrs Valley Mt

[reply to the August 21 letter of Alfred Beckley]

Respt referred to Genl. J. B.
Floyd Commd Army of Kanawha
with copy of reply, who is directed
to give such orders as may be
necessary in the case

R E Lee
Genl commd

Original letter tiped in "Four years with General Lee" by Walter H. Taylor

E470.2 .T25 1878 COPY 1

1861 August 25 Berwicks Bay, La.

                                                   August 25th 1861
                                                    Berwicks' Bay La

          Dear Pa
                                             we arrived here this
morning about 4 o'clock, we left Houston on the 15
on the cars and arrived at the Bermont a little town
where we got on the Boat, the Boat left there about
5 oclock in the evening fro Niblets Bluff we arrived there
the next morning at 4 oclock, the River that we came
down on was a beautiful one large enough for most
amy size steamer to as it was the Niches we came
down it, into the Sabine bay we got in the bay
about 12 oclock and got on a boat trying to get
into the mouth of the Sabine, but got off as soon
as it was lite, and went on up to Niblets Bluff
a little place on the La side, we stoped there
one day & to make preparations to go on we all left
a foot the next morning we had not quite teams enough
bout our officers soon got enough for all we had a pretty
dry time for a day or two but after that we were not dry
a single time until we got Berwic we were 11 days
coming over an I believe it rained every day while
we were out we slept on wet blankets every night
very often we would have to wade places that run
up to our arms and never less than our up to our nees
the last three days I had a chill every day I was wal-
king along in the ranks and a very hard rain came

[page 2]
up and I had one of the hardest agues that abody
ever did have, I will have to bring my letter to
a close we will leave in a short time for
New Orleans I have miss my chill for the
last 2 days I think I will get well now, I
dont know whether you can read this it or not
there are about 500 men talking, write
soon give my love to all

yours Respectfully
A S Roberts

[possibly A S Roberts of the 4th Texas Infantry]

MSS 10207

Wednesday, August 24, 2011

1861 August 24

[From the diary of Eugene M. Cox, of the Border Guard, Wise Legion]

9 A.M.
Spent the night very comfortably--arose this morning much refreshed--From what we can learn it is probably that we will remain here for some time and it is to be hoped that we will be able to get all of our necessary equipments before we move again but experience has taught us that there is no certainty in movements of a military campaign, especially in a mountainous country like this with so large a number of points to guard and comparatively a small force with which to do so. Men are all washing their clothes which have gotten quite dirty since we left the "White"--We have a beautiful place for camp and have plenty of good water and wood, things very necessary to the comfort of an army--p P.M. Spent the day very agreeably--and are now preparing for sleep--by 9 1/2 P.M. Taps--out must go our lights.

MSS 38-221

1861 August 24 Richmond [Virginia]

[The following is a printed form filled out by hand]

INVOICE of Ordnance and Ordnance Stores turned over by me this
day of August 1861
Capt Wood Asst
Quartermaster C. S. Army, for transportation to Capt Cocke

Capt. C C Cocke
Camp Magruder

44 Boxes
2 Kegs


294 Rounds 6 pdr Shot
238 " 6 " Sph[erical] Case
70 " 6 " Canister
24 Spare Cartidges
900 Friction Primers
43 Yds Slow Match
43 Port fires

I certify that the above Invoice is correct.

W N Smith
Mil[itary] Store Keeper

MONTGOMERY Richmond August 24th 1861

Cary C. Cocke was in command of the Fluvanna Artillery.

In the above list the six pounder Shot refers to heavy iron cannonballs. Early in the war the Confederate artillery used these rounds which were no match against the Union 12 pounders. By 1862 these 6 pounders were melted down and recast as 12 pounder Napoleons. The Spherical Cases were round shells filled with balls and powder. The Canisters were Civil War "anti-personnel weapons" consisting of cans filled with balls and powder designed to explode as soon as they left the cannon's bore. Of all the artillery they were the most dangerous and feared. Friction primers were hollow metal tubes about 3 inches long and 1/4 inch wide filled with gunpowder. A pin with a serrated edge was pushed through two holes drilled in the top. One end of the pin had a loop which was attached to a 6 inch rope lanyard. The tube was inserted into a vent at the back end of the cannon's barrel and from there into the bore. When the lanyard was yanked the pin was drawn across the top creating a spark which ignited the powder inside the tube and threw a flash down the barrel to explode the powder behind the shot and propel the shot out of the cannon. These friction primers represented the most advanced technology available. But the armies were still using older technology to ignite the charges, hence the distribution of slow match and portfires. The conclusion from the list is that Cocke's "Fluvanna Artillery," along with being armed with small and easily-outmatched 6-pounder guns, was occasionally firing those pieces with technology that was literally decades old. [with thanks to Albemarle County, Va., Civil War historian Rick Britton.]

MSS 640

1861 August 24 Camp at Fairfax Station

My darling Jennie

The alarm last evening turned out
to be nothing & we returned to camp after
dark--I send Billy with this--I will meet
you on Monday at the Junction & will bring you
down or have a first rate fight about it.
Bring the children along & leave Martha Ann
behind Billy can attend to you very well

Bring 2 maps with you & the things I mentioned
or at least as many as you can you will not
[need?] any fine clothes.

Affectionately yours

E.T.H. Warren

MSS 7786-g

Tuesday, August 23, 2011

1861 August 23 Richmond, Virginia]

I received this morning my dear Lucy yours of
yesterday & return you many thanks for writing so
regularly: before getting your letter the box was
delivered to me at Camp containing some beans[?]
a tin bucket (I suppose butter) some cakes, eggs
&c all which are very acceptable and go to
make our table quite out of the range of usual
camp fare; the comfort you send also will be
one indeed, and it is just what I wanted--I have
not called at the packet office to see about the
other box for distribution to the soldiers now
about the city most needing plain articles, but
I will endevour to see it has the proper direction
I forgot to mention the socks which you put into
my box which are just the thing I wanted &
was about to get some & suppose will have to try
woollen ones, as winter comes on--I took out
of the things I brought with me such clothing as
I thought there was no need of keeping & have put
them with Mary's trunk which I want to send home
by Billie this afternoon. I take you have received
my letters regularly I have written whenever I could
get an opportunity as I shall always do--I
wish you would say to Irving that he may agree
as to the 45 cents pr barrel with Seay & 7 cts pr box for
grinding & tell him to send up that part of the

[page 2]
wheat which is the fair without being
the best-and tell him to have it well
cleaned, & request Seay to do what he
can to make a good article of Superfine
Flour--The boat with the Hay has
not yet come but I look for it to
arrive tonight--I saw Col Pendleton
today, he says he will be at our camp
this afternoon between 5 & 6. & that he
wants five Companies including mine to be
ready to go with him on Wednesday
morning next--but I yet think he is too
fast--the equipment of the Companies is
not enough advanced, but they may
be able to hurry matters up--I will write
again by the mail on Monday. I hope
all continues well with you how grateful would
it be for me to come & spend a few days
with you, but I cannot see any opportunity
now--Give my affectionate love to the dear children
to Mary & John & Sterling Kisses to dear Lelia
& all love to Nannie who I hope is coming on finely[?]
on horseback & to Miss Bal & All at Low[er] Bremo & [Bremo] Recess
& believe me ever my dear Lucy yrs most devotedly
Cary C. Cocke

Lower Bremo and Bremo Recess were two adjacent Cocke family plantations on the James River in Fluvanna County. Mary, John and Sterling were family "servants," i.e. slaves.

MSS 640

1861 August 23

[from the diary of Wesley Hammond, Confederate soldier in the Dixie Greys (42nd Virginia, Co. E.)]

Day beautiful – Soldier died in
camp – read 15 chaps. in bible
20 pages in Milton’s Paradise
Lost. battalion drill – dress parade

MSS 5526

1861 August 23

[from the diary of Harrison B. Jones, 4th Sergeant, Co. H, 33rd Virginia Infantry]

the weather pleasant
there was quite an excite
ment to day owing to a
report that enemy were
advancing. we left our
encampment about 4 o'clock
and marched to farfax court
house. we then faced about
and returned to our encampment

MSS 14169

1861 August 22

[from the diary of Wesley Hammond, Confederate soldier in the Dixie Greys (42nd Virginia, Co. E.)]

Thursday 22.
Rained all day – done noth
ing but stay in our tents.
read 23 chap. in bible 29 pages in Mil- ^’ton’
MSS 5526

1861 August 22 The Island [Nelson County, Va.?]

My Beloved Husband

I was a little disappoint
-ed this morning, at not hearing from you, and
earnestly hope you were not prevented by sick-
ness, from writing. The mails are so irregu-
lar, that, to that reason,I may ascribe the
caise, and then I have no reason to com
plain, for you have written so often that
I had no right to expect a letter by
this mornings mail--I fear my own
precious husband that you have found
camp life very disagreeable for it
has been raining for nearly a week
& it must have been very damp in
a tent--I greatly fear its effect on
your health and at the first sym-
tom of indisposition you must leave
& come home--Remember dearest
you promised so todo before you
left--I received a sweet letter from
our dear mother this morning
written nearly a week ago--She is

[page 2]
very dear to me my Philip
and I shall go bac to her soon with
a heart overflowing with love &
tenderness--She says you sister
is much better--riding out, and
the rest of the family well--I also
received a most kind & affection
ate letter from you aunt Sallie
asking me to call to see her
on my return which I hope to
do if you mother concludes to
meet me there--I want you to
write me & to her (I mean
mother) when you think you
can come home, so that we may
know how to make our ar-
rangements--Your coming is the
beacon light which cheers me
on & keeps my poor heart from
sinking--Oh if you knew how
I long to see ou, --but it is well
that you do not for it would only
make our seperation harder for
you to bear--When will this agony
be over--Alas! none can tell and
there seems an eternity of suspense still to

[page 3]
to be endured--Mother writes
me my own precious Philip is
faring very badly now and hardly
has the neasessaries [sic] of life--
tell me what you have to live on
when you write and if there is much
sickness in our army--Everyone who
comes up from R-d tells us that
hundreds of soldiers are daily
being sent up to Manassas
Won't you tell me in your next
how large a force you as far as
you can ascertain we have
there--I feel perfectly convin-
ced that all this is but a prelude
to an advance and what the re-
sult of that move may be non
can tell--Alex & V. are still
here but speak of going down in
about a week [word lined through] Alex
improves very slowly and I
dont think he will be aable to
go back to the army--He is
going down to try and get a place
in Genl Toomb's staff.

[page 4]
I have nothing new or interesting
to write about & will not pain
you by dwelling on my own
sad thoughts--I am quite
well and take care of myself
as you desired--Luna & Char-
lie send a gread deal of love to
you--It is realy touching to see
how Luna tries to cheer me
She is constantly doing some
little act to show her affection
and says "Tell brother Phil I am
too thankful he let you stay here
with me" She and Charley ar my
constant companions & sweet little
comfortaers they are--All the neigh
bors have been most kind in com
ing to see me but I have been no
where except to see my old grand
mother--Farewell for the present
my own loved Philip I will write
again by the next mail & hope
to hear from you soon--May God
in His mercy bless & protect you
is the constant prayer of your
devoted wife J[ulia].C[alvert].B[olling]. Cabell

MSS 38-111

1861 Aug[ust] 22 camp of instruction Richmond Va

Dear father and mother
I take my pen In hand
to let you know that
I am well and hope
when theas few lines
come to hand they may
find you injoying the same
blessing I like the camp
life fine we air fareing very
we get lite bread & bacon &
rice & dride apples coffee, beef, sugar
that air some of our boys
in the hauspitle but tha
air all getting better.

father we have not got our
arms we dont know
when we will leave here
richmond father you
know more a bout the
news than I do we beside[?]
dont read any more n this

[page 2]
father & mothe[r] I have
seen more since I have
been in richmond then
you could shake a stick
at we have prayer meeting
every night & preaching
every Sundy, I have seen
the verry yankeys we
have about 3000 priseners
we got caps to wear James
[name?] sent word that
we was hard looking
cases you would laugh
to see me rubing the
shirttails you or to
see me making up bread
throwing the do from
east to west mother
I had my likeness
taken & will send it
to you the first
chanc you can gett it at
Amsterdam halt

[page 3]
father I would like to have
a bout 3 dollars if you
can get it if you do send
me any be carefull to
direct your letter to camp
on instrucktion richmand
Va in care of P G Bre
in ri ckinridge we dont
drill much I have stood
guard wonce & we stand
2 hours and rest four and
then nextt day we can go
to town we see the
verry gals in richmond
while i am writing thte
boys air getting super
some baking pyse
some air eatting and
so on tell the girls
to write to me tell
tell susy write to
me we air all in fine
spirits amen & amen

[page 4]
we have a jolly
pold time tell all th
children howdy for
me I here cannons
fireing every day it is
our artillery a practice
ing there the air thr
owing bresast works
all around richmond
my bad writing and
spelling is nothing
at preasent mossy
John hammaer away
at the old guns
write to me soon
so I will knode know
that you get my
letters yours untill death
so good By

James B. Painter

Corporal, Company K, 28th Virginia Infantry.

if you send me some money
send it soon we [?] leave

MSS 10661

1861 Aug[ust] 22 Camp Magruder

To his Excellency
John Letcher
Governor of Virginia

Private Peter R. Dunnington
the bearer of this volunteered to join my company before any
exemptions had been granted by the proclamation; he
mustered with the company had his measure taken with
the other men, & his uniform was made up, & is now
in camp. Having come out of the Militia of the Line
& entered & served with a volunteer company of which
I have chief charge, I concluded the exemptions gran
ted by the second proclamation of your Excellency, did
not release any who were in the Volunteer service, &
that therefore the said Dunnington owed service
in my company & accordingly after an interview with
you excellency I sent up specialy to require his
presence here. Whatever decision you Excellency
may make in the case shall be intirely satisfactory
to yours very respectfully
Cary C. Cocke, Capt
Fluvanna Light Artillery

[see letter of August 19 of J. B. Fenwick of Scottsville, asking for an exemption for Dunnington]

This man must go into service
under Capt Cocke
He cannot be ex
John Letcher
Aug 22 1861

MSS 640

1861 August 21 Camp Shady Spring

Maj. gen Robert. E. Lee
Commanding in Chief
been assigned to special service by Genl
H. A. Wise to direct the operations of a Body
of Militia partly from my own Brigade
& partly from Genl Chapmans with Caskies
troop Rangers in the loop of New River
embracing all of Raleigh County & part
of Fayette County. I have formed a
camp of instruction at this place 9
miles south of Raleigh C.H and have
now a force of about 250 men from Fayette
& Raleigh Counties besides Caskies Rangers
numbering 41. While awaiting reinforce-
=mets from Monroe Giles & Mercer Coun-
=ties in Genl Chapman's Brigade,
understanding there were four comp=

[page 2]
=anies of Volunteers newly organized
and officered in the County of Mercer
in the vicinity of Princeton viz Two
companies of Cavalry & under Capt
Napoleon B. French & Wm Henderson French
& two companies of Infantry under Capt
John Peck and John Dunlap I repaird
these with Dr Stites my acting surgeon
for the purpose of mustering them into
my 35 Regiment and consolidating &
preparing them for the field in my camp
of Instruction without delay. These Capts
refused to be mustered mustered into
service and the militia of Mercer having
been called out by Genl Chapman's order
at the same time they & their men
refused to march with the militia
disobeying the order of the colonel of the
militia Regiment to that effect I am
also informed that there is a company
of Infantry fully organized under Capt
Wm. P. Cecil and two more companies
now forming in the county of Tazewell

[page 3]
and one forming in Giles county.

General I ask
that you will send me explicit and
positive orders for these several companies
to repair without delay to my camp of
Instruction, and be mustered into service.

These companies are without good
drill masters and will require a
good deal of attention to fit them for the
field even with the advantages & facilities
of a Camp of instruction and the public
service in my opinion demands that
these companies be promptly mustered in
the service.

As Soon as I am reinforced by
the militia from Monroe, Giles & Mercer
counties which by a dispatch from Genl
Chapman will take place in few days
I will advance toward Fayette C.H.
& Cotton Hill scouting, watching
closely & harrassing the Enemy & coopera
=ting as far as the nature of my force
will admit with Genls Floyd & Wise

[page 4]

Very respe[c]tfully, General
Your obdt Servt
Alfred Beckley
Brig Genl & Col. 35th Reg Vols

Alfred Beckley, 1802-1888. Five days after writing this plea to Lee Beckley assisted Genl. John B. Floyd in his victory over Union General Colonel Erastus B. Tyler at Cross Lanes, Nicholas County [West] Virginia

original letter tipped into "Four Years with General Lee" by Walter H. Taylor